War of the Sixth Coalition

In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the Wars of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Spain, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, and a number of German States defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba. After the disastrous French invasion of Russia of 1812 in which they had been forced to support France, Prussia and Austria joined Russia, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Portugal, and the rebels in Spain who were already at war with France.

War of the Sixth Coalition
Part of the Napoleonic Wars and the Coalition Wars
War of the Sixth Coalition
War of the Sixth Coalition

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Left to right, top to bottom:
Battles of Lutzen, Katzbach, Dresden, Kulm, Leipzig, Hanau, Rothière, Laubressel, Laon, Arcis, Champenoise, Paris
Date3 March 1813 – 30 May 1814
(1 year, 2 months, 3 weeks and 6 days)
Result Coalition victory
See section Aftermath
Original coalition

After the Armistice of Pläswitz

After the Battle of Leipzig

After 20 November 1813

After January 1814


Until January 1814


 United States (War of 1812)

Commanders and leaders
1813: 1,070,000 1813: 850,000
Casualties and losses


  • 391,000 killed and wounded
  • 135,000 captured and missing


  • 103,300 killed
  • 320,600 wounded
  • 245,000 captured and missing
Third Coalition: Germany 1803:...Austerlitz...
Fourth Coalition: Prussia 1806:...Jena...
Peninsular War: Portugal 1807...Torres Vedras...
Peninsular War: Spain 1808...Vitoria...
Fifth Coalition: Austria 1809:...Wagram...
French invasion of Russia 1812:...Moscow...
Sixth Coalition: Germany 1813:...Leipzig...
Sixth Coalition: France 1814:...Paris...
Hundred Days 1815:...Waterloo...

The War of the Sixth Coalition saw major battles at Lützen, Bautzen, and Dresden. The even larger Battle of Leipzig (also known as the Battle of Nations) was the largest battle in European history before World War I. Ultimately, Napoleon's earlier setbacks in Spain, Portugal and Russia proved to be the seeds of his undoing. With their armies reorganized, the allies drove Napoleon out of Germany in 1813 and invaded France in 1814. The Allies defeated the remaining French armies, occupied Paris, and forced Napoleon to abdicate and go into exile. The French monarchy was revived by the allies, who handed rule to the heir of the House of Bourbon in the Bourbon Restoration.

The "Hundred Days" War of the Seventh Coalition was triggered in 1815 when Napoleon escaped from his captivity on Elba and returned to power in France. He was defeated again for the final time at Waterloo, ending the Napoleonic Wars.

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