Vladivostok (// VLAD-iv-OST-ok; Russian: Владивосто́к, IPA: [vlədʲɪvɐˈstok] (listen)) is the largest city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia. The city is located around the Golden Horn Bay on the Sea of Japan, covering an area of 331.16 square kilometers (127.86 square miles), with a population of 600,871 residents as of 2021. Vladivostok is the second-largest city in the Far Eastern Federal District, as well as the Russian Far East, after Khabarovsk.
|Federal subject||Primorsky Krai|
|Founded||July 2, 1860|
|City status since||April 22, 1880|
|• Body||City Duma|
|• Head||Konstantin Shestakov|
|• Total||331.16 km2 (127.86 sq mi)|
|Elevation||8 m (26 ft)|
|• Rank||22nd in 2010|
|• Subordinated to||Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction|
|• Capital of||Primorsky Krai, Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction|
|• Urban okrug||Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug|
|Time zone||UTC+10 (MSK+7 )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 423|
|City Day||First Sunday of July|
Shortly after the signing of the Treaty of Aigun, the city was founded on July 2, 1860 as a Russian military outpost on formerly Chinese land. In 1872, the main Russian naval base on the Pacific Ocean was transferred to the city, stimulating the growth of the young city. After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917, Vladivostok was occupied in 1918 by White Russian and Allied forces, the last of whom from Japan were not withdrawn until 1922; by that time the antirevolutionary White Army forces in Vladivostok promptly collapsed, and Soviet power was established in the city. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Vladivostok became the administrative center of Primorsky Krai.
Vladivostok is the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean, and the chief cultural, economic, scientific, and tourism heart of the Russian Far East. As the terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the city was visited by over three million tourists in 2017. The city is the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District, and is the home to the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy. Due to its geographical position, and its Russian culture, the city has been referred to as "Europe in the Far East". Many foreign consulates and businesses have offices in Vladivostok, and the city hosts the annual Eastern Economic Forum. With a yearly mean temperature of around 5 °C (41 °F) Vladivostok has a cold climate for its mid-latitude coastal setting. This is due to winds from the vast Eurasian landmass in winter, also cooling the ocean temperatures.