Vietnamese calligraphy

Vietnamese calligraphy (chữ Quốc ngữ: thư pháp Việt Nam, Chữ Hán: 書法越南) relates to the calligraphic traditions of Vietnam. It includes calligraphic works using a variety of scripts, including historical chữ Hán (Chinese characters), Chữ Nôm, and the Latin-based chữ Quốc ngữ. Historically, calligraphers used the former two scripts. However, due to the adoption of the Latin-based chữ Quốc ngữ, modern Vietnamese calligraphy also uses Latin script alongside Chinese script.[1]

These Chữ Quốc Ngữ (Latin) syllables[N 1] arranged into blocks: Tân niên hạnh phúc bình an tiến, xuân nhật vinh hoa phú quý lê. Translation: Wishing for a peaceful happy new year, and spring days full of rich flowers and precious pears.
Calligraphic fonts from Vietnam

Traditional Vietnamese calligraphy is strongly affected by that of China. Chữ Hán was often used as the written medium of communication, and as a result, Vietnamese calligraphy also used to follow Chinese calligraphy’s standard and used chữ Hán in many of its writings. For example, during the Lý dynasty, its style was similar to China’s Tang dynasty (618-907). During the Trần dynasty, it was influenced strongly by China’s Song (960-1279) and Yuan (1271-1368) dynasties.[2] The use of the character "" (pronunciation: song hỉ, meaning double happiness), is often displayed in wedding backdrops.

Nonetheless, over time, Vietnam developed its own styles of calligraphy historically for writing both Chữ Hán and Chữ Nôm. In the later Lê dynasty, Vietnam developed a unique style of calligraphy called "Nam tự" (lit.'southern script', 南字,) by Phạm Đình Hổ (範廷琥) in his book Vũ Trung Tùy Bút (Written on Rainy Days - 雨中隨筆).[3] It was first used in bureaucracy only but later became popular for all writing purposes. It was also called "Lệnh Thư" (lit.'script for decrees' 令書,) in Việt Sử Toát Yếu (Vietnamese History and Compendium - 越史撮要) because of its initial bureaucratic characteristic.[4]

Cursive Vietnamese

In modern times, calligraphy has been done frequently in the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet chữ Quốc ngữ script, as Chữ Nôm and Chữ Hán have largely fallen out of use.[5] Chữ quốc ngữ calligraphy gained popularity during the New Poetry and Free Poetry Movements, due to the increasing popularity of using the Vietnamese vernacular, as well as influence from French literature. Modern Vietnamese calligraphy is influenced by modern Latin cursive but is written using the calligraphy brush, rather than quill or reed pens as is done in Western calligraphy. Vietnamese calligraphy can be used to write poems, festive banners, signage, and so on.

Cursive Vietnamese meaning "Happy new year"

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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Vietnamese calligraphy, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.