Vietnam, or Viet Nam (Vietnamese: Việt Nam, [vîət nāːm] (listen)), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is a country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311,699 square kilometres (120,348 sq mi) and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country. Vietnam borders China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, and shares maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia through the South China Sea. Its capital is Hanoi and largest city Ho Chi Minh City.
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Cộng hòa Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam (Vietnamese)
|Motto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc|
"Independence – Liberty – Happiness"
|Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca|
|Largest city||Ho Chi Minh City|
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic|
|Nguyễn Phú Trọng|
|Nguyễn Xuân Phúc|
|Phạm Minh Chính|
|Vương Đình Huệ|
• Empire of Việt Nam proclaimed
|2 September 1945|
|21 July 1954|
|30 April 1975|
|2 July 1976|
|28 November 2013|
|331,699 km2 (128,070 sq mi) (66th)|
• Water (%)
• 2019 census
|295.0/km2 (764.0/sq mi) (29th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2022 estimate|
|$1.278 trillion (25th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2022 estimate|
|$408.947 billion (39th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2018)|| 35.7|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.704|
high · 117th
|Currency||đồng (₫) (VND)|
|Time zone||UTC+07:00 (Vietnam Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||VN|
Vietnam was inhabited by the Paleolithic age, with states established in the first millennium BC on the Red River Delta in modern-day northern Vietnam. The Han dynasty annexed Northern and Central Vietnam under Chinese rule from 111 BC, until the first dynasty emerged in 939. Successive monarchical dynasties absorbed Chinese influences through Confucianism and Buddhism, and expanded southward to the Mekong Delta, conquering Champa. The Nguyễn—the last imperial dynasty—fell to French colonisation in 1887. Following the August Revolution, the nationalist Viet Minh under the leadership of communist revolutionary Ho Chi Minh proclaimed independence from France in 1945.
Vietnam went through prolonged warfare in the 20th century. After World War II, France returned to reclaim colonial power in the First Indochina War, from which Vietnam emerged victorious in 1954. The Vietnam War began shortly after, during which the nation was divided into communist North supported by the Soviet Union and China, and anti-communist South supported by the United States. Upon the North Vietnamese victory in 1975, Vietnam reunified as a unitary socialist state under the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) in 1976. An ineffective planned economy, a trade embargo by the West, and wars with Cambodia and China crippled the country further. In 1986, the CPV initiated economic and political reforms similar to the Chinese economic reform, transforming the country to a market-oriented economy. The reforms facilitated Vietnamese reintegration into global economy and politics.
A developing country with a lower-middle-income economy, Vietnam is nonetheless one of the fastest growing economies of the 21st century, with GDP predicted to rival developed nations by 2050. Vietnam has high levels of corruption, censorship and a poor human rights record; the country ranks among the lowest in international measurements of civil liberties, freedom of the press and freedom of religion and ethnic minorities. It is part of international and intergovernmental institutions including the ASEAN, the APEC, the CPTPP, the Non-Aligned Movement, the OIF, and the WTO. It has assumed a seat on the United Nations Security Council twice.