United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; Arabic: ٱلْإِمَارَاتُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْمُتَّحِدَةُ al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabīyah al-Muttaḥidah), or simply the Emirates (Arabic: ٱلْإِمَارَاتُ al-ʾImārāt), is a country in Western Asia (The Middle East). It is located at the eastern end of the Arabian Peninsula and shares borders with Oman and Saudi Arabia, while having maritime borders in the Persian Gulf with Qatar and Iran. Abu Dhabi is the nation's capital, while Dubai, the most populous city, is an international hub.

United Arab Emirates
ٱلْإِمَارَاتُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْمُتَّحِدَةُ (Arabic)
al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabīyah al-Muttaḥidah
Motto: الله الوطن الرئيس
God, Nation, President
Anthem: عيشي بلادي
"Īšiy Bilādī"
"Long Live My Country"
Location of United Arab Emirates (green)

in the Arabian Peninsula

CapitalAbu Dhabi
24°28′N 54°22′E
Largest cityDubai
25°15′N 55°18′E
Official languagesArabic[1]
Common languagesGulf Arabic, English[2]
Ethnic groups
(2020)[3] [4]
[needs update]
Religion
(2022)
Demonym(s)Emirati[5]
GovernmentFederal Islamic parliamentary elective semi-constitutional monarchy[6][7][8]
 President
Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan[9]
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Legislature
Establishment
1708
 Sharjah
1727
 Abu Dhabi
1761
1768
 Ajman
1816
 Dubai
1833
 Fujairah
1879
 Independence from the United Kingdom and the Trucial States
2 December 1971
9 December 1971
 Admission of Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah to the UAE
10 February 1972
Area
 Total
83,600 km2 (32,300 sq mi) (114th)
 Water (%)
negligible
Population
 2020 estimate
9,282,410[10] (92nd)
 2005 census
4,106,427
 Density
121/km2 (313.4/sq mi) (110th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$779.234 billion[11] (34th)
 Per capita
$78,255[11] (6th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$501.354 billion[11] (32nd)
 Per capita
$50,349[11] (21st)
Gini (2018)26.0[12]
low
HDI (2021) 0.911[13]
very high · 26th
CurrencyUAE dirham (AED)
Time zoneUTC+04:00 (United Arab Emirates Standard Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+971
ISO 3166 codeAE
Internet TLD

The United Arab Emirates is an elective monarchy formed from a federation of seven emirates, consisting of Abu Dhabi (the capital), Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain.[14] Each emirate is governed by an emir and together the emirs form the Federal Supreme Council. The members of the Federal Supreme Council elect a president and vice president from among their members. In practice, the emir of Abu Dhabi serves as president while the ruler of Dubai is vice president and also prime minister.[15] In 2013, the country had a population of 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million were Emirati citizens and 7.8 million were expatriates.[16][17][18] As of 2020, the United Arab Emirates has an estimated population of roughly 9.9 million.[19]

The United Arab Emirates has been inhabited for over 125,000 years. It has been the crossroads of trading for many civilizations, including Mesopotamia, Persia, and India.[20]

Islam is the official religion and Arabic the official language. The United Arab Emirates' oil and natural gas reserves are the world's sixth and seventh-largest, respectively.[21][22] Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the country's first president, oversaw the development of the Emirates by investing oil revenues into healthcare, education, and infrastructure.[23] The United Arab Emirates has the most diversified economy among the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council.[24] In the 21st century, the country has become less reliant on oil and gas and is economically focusing on tourism and business. The government does not levy income tax, although there is a corporate tax in place and a 5% value-added tax was established in 2018.[25]

Human rights groups, such as Amnesty International, Freedom House and Human Rights Watch, regard UAE as generally substandard on human rights, with citizens criticising the regime imprisoned and tortured, families harassed by the state security apparatus, and cases of forced disappearances.[26][27] Individual rights such as the freedoms of assembly, association, the press, expression, and religion are also severely repressed.[28]

The UAE is considered a middle power. It is a member of the United Nations, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, Non-Aligned Movement, and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).


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