Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago (/ˈtrɪnɪdæd...təˈbɡ/ (listen), /- t-/), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean. Consisting of the main islands Trinidad and Tobago, and numerous much smaller islands, it is situated 130 kilometres (81 miles) south of Grenada and 11 kilometres (6.8 miles) off the coast of northeastern Venezuela.[10] It shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest and Venezuela to the south and west.[11][12] Trinidad and Tobago is generally considered to be part of the West Indies. The island country's capital is Port of Spain, while its largest and most populous city is San Fernando.

Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Motto: Together We Aspire, Together We Achieve
Anthem: "Forged from the Love of Liberty"
CapitalPort of Spain
10°40′0″N 61°30′27″W
Largest citySan Fernando
10°17′N 61°28′W
Official languagesEnglish[1]
Other languagesSee Languages in Trinidad and Tobago[2]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Paula-Mae Weekes
Keith Rowley
Bridgid Annisette-George
Nigel de Freitas
Ivor Archie
Kamla Persad-Bissessar
House of Representatives
 Part of the West Indies Federation
3 January 1958 – 14 January 1962
31 August 1962
 Joined CARICOM at the Treaty of Chaguaramas
1 August 1973
1 August 1976[lower-alpha 1]
5,131 km2 (1,981 sq mi) (164th)
 Water (%)
 2022 estimate
1,405,646[6] (151st)
264/km2 (683.8/sq mi) (34th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
$45.148 billion
 Per capita
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
$22.438 billion
 Per capita
Gini (2012)39.0[8]
HDI (2021) 0.810[9]
very high · 57th
CurrencyTrinidad and Tobago dollar (TTD)
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+1 (868)
ISO 3166 codeTT
  1. Despite becoming a republic on 1 August, Republic Day is celebrated as a public holiday on 24 September because this is the date when the first Parliament met under the new Republican Constitution.[5]

The island of Trinidad was inhabited for centuries by Indigenous peoples before becoming a colony in the Spanish Empire, following the arrival of Christopher Columbus, in 1498. Spanish governor José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797.[13] Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889.[14] Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962, becoming a republic in 1976.[15][10]

Trinidad and Tobago has the 5th highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP) in the Americas for a sovereign state after the United States, Canada, The Bahamas and Guyana as of 2022.[16] It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy.[17] Unlike most Caribbean nations and territories, which rely heavily on tourism, the economy is primarily industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals;[18] much of the nation's wealth is derived from its large reserves of oil and natural gas.[19]

Trinidad and Tobago is well known for its African and Indian cultures, reflected in its large and famous Carnival, Diwali, and Hosay celebrations, as well being the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, and music styles such as calypso, soca, rapso, parang, chutney, and chutney soca.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26]

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