Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (French: Traité de Versailles; German: Versailler Vertrag, pronounced [vɛʁˈzaɪ̯ɐ fɛɐ̯ˈtʁaːk] (listen)) was the most important of the peace treaties of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in the Palace of Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which led to the war. The other Central Powers on the German side signed separate treaties.[lower-roman 1] Although the armistice of 11 November 1918 ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919.

Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany[n. 1]
Cover of the English version
Signed28 June 1919[1]
LocationHall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, Paris, France[2]
Effective10 January 1920[3]
ConditionRatification by Germany and three Principal Allied and Associate Powers[n. 2]
Principal Allied and Associated Powers[n. 1]
DepositaryFrench Government[n. 2]
LanguagesFrench and English[n. 2]
Full text
Treaty of Versailles at Wikisource
Events leading to World War II
  1. Treaty of Versailles 1919
  2. Polish–Soviet War 1919
  3. Treaty of Trianon 1920
  4. Treaty of Rapallo 1920
  5. Franco-Polish alliance 1921
  6. March on Rome 1922
  7. Corfu incident 1923
  8. Occupation of the Ruhr 1923–1925
  9. Mein Kampf 1925
  10. Second Italo-Senussi War 1923–1932
  11. Dawes Plan 1924
  12. Locarno Treaties 1925
  13. Young Plan 1929
  14. Great Depression 1929
  15. Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1931
  16. Pacification of Manchukuo 1931–1942
  17. January 28 incident 1932
  18. Geneva Conference 1932–1934
  19. Defense of the Great Wall 1933
  20. Battle of Rehe 1933
  21. Nazis' rise to power in Germany 1933
  22. Tanggu Truce 1933
  23. Italo-Soviet Pact 1933
  24. Inner Mongolian Campaign 1933–1936
  25. German–Polish declaration of non-aggression 1934
  26. Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance 1935
  27. Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance 1935
  28. He–Umezu Agreement 1935
  29. Anglo-German Naval Agreement 1935
  30. December 9th Movement
  31. Second Italo-Ethiopian War 1935–1936
  32. Remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936
  33. Spanish Civil War 1936–1939
  34. Italo-German "Axis" protocol 1936
  35. Anti-Comintern Pact 1936
  36. Suiyuan campaign 1936
  37. Xi'an Incident 1936
  38. Second Sino-Japanese War 1937–1945
  39. USS Panay incident 1937
  40. Anschluss Mar. 1938
  41. May Crisis May 1938
  42. Battle of Lake Khasan July–Aug. 1938
  43. Bled Agreement Aug. 1938
  44. Undeclared German–Czechoslovak War Sep. 1938
  45. Munich Agreement Sep. 1938
  46. First Vienna Award Nov. 1938
  47. German occupation of Czechoslovakia Mar. 1939
  48. Hungarian invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine Mar. 1939
  49. German ultimatum to Lithuania Mar. 1939
  50. Slovak–Hungarian War Mar. 1939
  51. Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War Mar.–Apr. 1939
  52. Danzig Crisis Mar.–Aug. 1939
  53. British guarantee to Poland Mar. 1939
  54. Italian invasion of Albania Apr. 1939
  55. Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations Apr.–Aug. 1939
  56. Pact of Steel May 1939
  57. Battles of Khalkhin Gol May–Sep. 1939
  58. Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Aug. 1939
  59. Invasion of Poland Sep. 1939

Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial was: "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies." The other members of the Central Powers signed treaties containing similar articles. This article, Article 231, became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty required Germany to disarm, make ample territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion gold marks (then $31.4 billion or £6.6 billion, roughly equivalent to US$442 billion or UK£284 billion in 2022). Because of the way the deal was structured, the Allied Powers intended Germany would only ever pay a value of 50 billion marks.

Prominent economists such as John Maynard Keynes declared the treaty too harsh—a "Carthaginian peace"—and said the reparations were excessive and counter-productive. On the other hand, prominent Allied figures such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently. This is still the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists.

The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one satisfied. In particular, Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened. The problems that arose from the treaty would lead to the Locarno Treaties, which improved relations between Germany and the other European powers, and the re-negotiation of the reparation system resulting in the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, and the indefinite postponement of reparations at the Lausanne Conference of 1932. The treaty has sometimes been cited as a cause of World War II: although its actual impact was not as severe as feared, its terms led to great resentment in Germany which powered the rise of the Nazi Party.

Although it is often referred to as the "Versailles Conference", only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace. Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the "Big Four" meetings taking place generally at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the Quai d'Orsay.

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