Tasmania

Tasmania (/tæzˈmniə/; Palawa kani: lutruwita[14]) is an island state of Australia.[15] It is located 240 kilometres (150 miles) to the south of the Australian mainland, separated from it by the Bass Strait, with the archipelago containing the southernmost point of the country. The state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, and the surrounding 1000 islands.[16] It is Australia's least populous state, with 569,825 residents as of December 2021. The state capital and largest city is Hobart, with around 40 percent of the population living in the Greater Hobart area.[17]

Tasmania
lutruwita (Palawa kani)[1]
Nickname(s): 
  • Tassie
  • The Apple Isle
  • The Holiday Isle
Motto: 
Ubertas et Fidelitas (Latin)
(English: Fertility and Faithfulness)
Location of Tasmania in Australia
Coordinates: 42°S 147°E
CountryAustralia
Before federationColony of Tasmania
Federation1 January 1901
Named forAbel Tasman
Capital
and largest city
Hobart
42°52′50″S 147°19′30″E
Administration29 local government areas
Demonym(s)
  • Tasmanian
  • Taswegian (colloquial)[2]
  • Vandemonian (humorous)[3]
Government
 Monarch
Charles III
 Governor
Barbara Baker
 Premier
Jeremy Rockliff (Liberal)
LegislatureParliament of Tasmania
Legislative Council
House of Assembly
JudiciarySupreme Court of Tasmania
Parliament of Australia
 Senate
12 senators (of 76)
5 seats (of 151)
Area
 Total
90,758 km2 (35,042 sq mi) (7th)
 Land
68,401 km2 (26,410 sq mi)
 Water
22,357 km2 (8,632 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,617 m (5,305 ft)
Population
 March 2022 estimate
571,165[4] (6th)
 Density
8.3/km2 (21.5/sq mi) (4th)
GSP2020 estimate
 Total
AU$32.102 billion[5] (8th)
 Per capita
AU$59,779 (7th)
Gini (2016)44.8[6]
medium · 3rd
HDI (2019) 0.914[7]
very high · 8th
Time zoneUTC+10:00 (AEST)
  Summer (DST)
UTC+11:00 (AEDT)
Postal abbreviation
TAS
ISO 3166 codeAU-TAS
Symbols
MammalTasmanian devil
(Sarcophilus harrisii)[8]
BirdYellow wattlebird (unofficial)
(Anthochaera paradoxa)[9]
FlowerTasmanian blue gum
(Eucalyptus globulus)[10]
PlantLeatherwood (unofficial)
(Eucryphia lucida)[11]
MineralCrocoite
(PbCrO4)[12]
ColourBottle Green (PMS 342), Yellow (PMS 114), & Maroon (PMS 194)[13]
Websitetas.gov.au
Tasmania from space

Tasmania's main island was inhabited by Aboriginal peoples for up to 40,000 years before British colonization.[18] It is thought that Aboriginal Tasmanians became separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 11,700 years ago, after rising sea levels formed Bass Strait.[19] The island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.[20] The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of British settlement, but was almost wiped out within 30 years during a period of conflicts with settlers known as the "Black War" and the spread of infectious diseases. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831 and led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of almost 1,100 Aboriginal people and settlers.

Under British rule the island was initially part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate colony under the name Van Diemen's Land (named after Anthony van Diemen) in 1825.[21] Approximately 80,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before this practice, known as transportation, ceased in 1853.[22] In 1855 the present Constitution of Tasmania was enacted, and the following year the colony formally changed its name to Tasmania. In 1901 it became a state of Australia through the process of the federation of Australia.

Today, Tasmania has the second smallest economy of the Australian states and territories, which is significantly formed of tourism, agriculture and aquaculture, education and healthcare.[23] Tasmania is a significant agricultural exporter, as well as a significant destination for eco-tourism. About 42 percent of its land area, including national parks and World Heritage Sites (21%) is protected in some form of reserve.[24] The first environmental political party in the world was founded in Tasmania.[25]


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