State of the Teutonic Order

The State of the Teutonic Order (German: Staat des Deutschen Ordens, pronounced [ʃtaːt dɛs ˌdɔɪ̯t͡ʃn ˈʔɔʁdn̩s] (listen); Latin: Civitas Ordinis Theutonici; Lithuanian: Vokiečių ordino valstybė; Polish: Państwo zakonu krzyżackiego), also called Deutschordensstaat (pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃʔɔʁdn̩sˌʃtaːt] (listen)) or Ordensstaat (pronounced [ˈɔʁdn̩sˌʃtaːt] (listen)),[3] was a medieval crusader state, located in Central Europe along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea. It was formed by the knights of the Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades in the region of Prussia. The Livonian Brothers of the Sword merged in 1237 with the Teutonic Order of Prussia and became known as its branch, the Livonian Order, while their state (Terra Mariana) became a part of the Teutonic Order State. At its greatest territorial extent, in the early 15th century, it encompassed Chełmno Land, Courland, Gotland, Livonia, Neumark, Pomerelia (Gdańsk Pomerania), Prussia and Samogitia, i.e. territories nowadays located in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, Russia and Sweden.

State of the Teutonic Order
Staat des Deutschen Ordens  (German)
Civitas Ordinis Theutonici  (Latin)
1226–1561
Flag
Coat of arms
The State of the Teutonic Order in 1422
StatusSovereign state (1226–1466)
Fief and part
(Prussia only) of
Poland[1] (1466–1525)
CapitalMarienburg (1308–1454)
Königsberg (1454–1525)
Common languagesOld Prussian language (Popular), Low German, Latin, Baltic languages, Estonian, Livonian, Polish
Religion
Roman Catholic
Demonym(s)Teutons
GovernmentTheocratic elective monarchy
Grand Master (until 1308);
Grand Master and Land Master of Prussia (until 1525);
Land Master of Livonia (until 1561)
 
 1226–1239
Hermann (first reigning Grand Master)
 1510–1525
Albert (last reigning Grand Master and Land Master of Prussia)
 1559–1561
Gotthard (last reigning Land Master of Livonia (Terra Mariana)
LegislatureEstates[2]
Historical eraMiddle Ages
March 1226
08 November 1308
15 July 1410
1454–1466
19 October 1466
1519–1521
 Prussian Homage (end of the Prussian branch)
10 April 1525
 Treaty of Vilnius (1561) (end of the Livonian branch)
28 November 1561
CurrencyMark
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Old Prussians
Duchy of Estonia
Yotvingians
Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Courland and Semigalia
Duchy of Livonia
Swedish Estonia

Following the battles of Grunwald in 1410 and Wilkomierz in 1435, the State fell into decline. After losing extensive territory in the imposed Peace of Thorn in 1466, the extant territory of its Prussian branch became known as Monastic Prussia (Polish: Prusy zakonne) or Teutonic Prussia (Polish: Prusy krzyżackie) and existed until 1525 as a part and fiefdom of the Kingdom of Poland.[1] The Livonian branch joined the Livonian Confederation and continued to exist as its part until 1561.


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