State of Palestine

Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين, romanized: Filasṭīn, pronounced [fɪ.lɪs.tˤiː.n]), officially the State of Palestine[lower-alpha 1] (دولة فلسطين, Dawlat Filasṭīn), is a state located in the Southern Levant, Western Asia. Officially governed by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), it claims the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip as its territory, though the entirety of that territory has been under Israeli occupation since the 1967 Six-Day War.[5][18] As a result of the Oslo Accords of 1993–1995, the West Bank is currently divided into 165 Palestinian enclaves that are under partial Palestinian National Authority (PNA) rule; the remainder, including 200 Israeli settlements, is under full Israeli control. The Gaza Strip has been ruled by the militant Islamic group Hamas and has been subject to a long-term blockade by Egypt and Israel since 2007.[lower-alpha 3]

State of Palestine[lower-alpha 1]
دولة فلسطين (Arabic)
Dawlat Filasṭīn
Anthem: "فدائي"
"Fedayeen Warrior"
Territory claimed by Palestine (green)Territory also claimed by Israel (light green)
Territory claimed by Palestine (green)[2]
Territory also claimed by Israel (light green)
StatusUN observer state
Recognized by 138 UN member states
  • Proclaimed capital
  • Administrative
Largest cityGaza City
Official languagesArabic
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[3]
Mahmoud Abbasa
Mohammad Shtayyeh
Aziz Dweik
LegislatureNational Council
15 November 1988
29 November 2012
 Sovereignty dispute with Israel
Ongoing[lower-alpha 3][4][5]
6,020[6] km2 (2,320 sq mi) (163rd)
 Water (%)
5,655 km2
365 km2[8]
 2021 estimate
5,227,193[9] (121st)
731/km2 (1,893.3/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
Increase$33.9 billion[10] (138th)
 Per capita
Increase$6,354[10] (140th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
Decrease$19.6 billion[10] (121st)
 Per capita
Decrease$3,517[10] (131st)
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 33.7[11]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.708[12]
high · 115th
Time zoneUTC+2 (Palestine Standard Time)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (Palestine Summer Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+970
ISO 3166 codePS
  1. Also the leader of the state's government.[lower-alpha 4]
  2. The territory claimed is under Israeli occupation.
  3. Ramallah is the administrative center of the Palestinian National Authority.[14]

After World War II, in 1947, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine, which recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem.[27] This Partition Plan was accepted by the Jews but rejected by the Arabs. Immediately after the United Nations General Assembly adopted the plan as Resolution 181, a civil war broke out[28] and the plan was not implemented.[29] The day after the establishment of the State of Israel on 14 May 1948,[30][31][32] neighboring Arab countries invaded the former British Mandate and engaged Israeli forces in the First Arab–Israeli War.[33][34] Later, the All-Palestine Government was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 to govern the All-Palestine Protectorate in the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan, which had occupied and later annexed the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Palestine is currently recognized by 138 of the 193 United Nations (UN) member states. Though jurisdiction of the All-Palestine Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip.[35] Israel later captured the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria during the Six-Day War in June 1967.

On 15 November 1988 in Algiers, then-Chairman of the PLO Yasser Arafat proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine. A year after the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, the PNA was formed to govern (in varying degrees) areas A and B in the West Bank, comprising 165 enclaves, and the Gaza Strip. After Hamas became the PNA parliament's leading party in the most recent elections (2006), a conflict broke out between it and the Fatah party, leading to Gaza being taken over by Hamas in 2007 (two years after the Israeli disengagement).

The State of Palestine's mid-year population in 2021 is 5,227,193. Although Palestine claims Jerusalem as its capital, the city is under the control of Israel; both Palestinian and Israeli claims to the city are mostly unrecognized by the international community. Palestine is a member of the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the G77, the International Olympic Committee, as well as UNESCO, UNCTAD and the International Criminal Court.[36] Following a failed attempt in 2011[lower-alpha 5] to secure full United Nations member state status, the United Nations General Assembly voted in 2012 to recognize Palestine as a non-member observer state.[38][39][40]

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