South Sudan

South Sudan (/sˈdɑːn, -ˈdæn/),[17][18] officially known as the Republic of South Sudan,[19] is a landlocked country in Central Africa.[20][21][22] It is bordered by Ethiopia, Sudan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda and Kenya. Its population was estimated as 12,778,250 in 2019. Juba is the capital and largest city.[23] The nation is sometimes informally referred to as the Nilotic Republic (as the supposed place of origin of the Nilotic peoples).[24][25]

Republic of South Sudan
Motto: 
"Justice, Liberty, Prosperity"
Anthem: 
"South Sudan Oyee!"
South Sudan in dark green, disputed regions in light green
Capital
and largest city
Juba
04°51′N 31°36′E
Official languagesEnglish[1]
Recognised national languages
and around 60 other languages
[note 1]
Spoken languages[3]
Religion
(2020)[8]
Demonym(s)South Sudanese
GovernmentFederal provisional unity government[9]
 President
Salva Kiir Mayardit
Riek Machar
 Speaker
Jemma Nunu Kumba
Chan Reec Madut
LegislatureTransitional National Legislature
Council of States
Transitional National Legislative Assembly
Independence 
from Sudan
 Autonomy
9 July 2005
15 July 2011
Area
 Total
644,329 km2 (248,777 sq mi) (41st)
Population
 2019 estimate
12,778,250 (75th)
 2008 census
8,260,490 (disputed)[10]
 Density
13.33/km2 (34.5/sq mi) (214th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
 Total
$18.435 billion[11]
 Per capita
$825[11] (221st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
 Total
$3.194 billion[11]
 Per capita
$246[11] (215th)
Gini (2016) 44.1[12]
medium
HDI (2019) 0.433[13]
low · 185th
CurrencySouth Sudanese pound (SSP)
Time zoneUTC+2 (Central Africa Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright[14]
Calling code+211[15]
ISO 3166 codeSS
Internet TLD.ss[16]a
  1. Registered, but not yet operational.

It gained independence from Sudan in 2011, making it the most recent sovereign state or country with widespread recognition as of 2022.[26] It includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal, meaning "Mountain River".[27] Sudan was occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out in 1983 and ended in 2005 with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Later that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following 98.83% support for independence in a January 2011 referendum.[28][29] It has suffered ethnic violence and endured a civil war characterised by rampant human rights abuses, including various ethnic massacres and killings of journalists by various parties to the conflict from December 2013 until February 2020, when competing combat leaders Salva Kiir Mayardit and Riek Machar struck a unity deal and formed a coalition government,[30] paving the way for refugees to return home.[31]

The South Sudanese population is composed mostly of Nilotic peoples, and it is demographically among the youngest nations in the world, with roughly half under 18 years old.[32] The majority of inhabitants adhere to Christianity or various Indigenous faiths. The country is a member of the United Nations,[33][34] the African Union,[35] the East African Community,[36] and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development.[37]


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