Slovenia (/slˈvniə, slə-/ (listen)[10][11] sloh-VEE-nee-ə; Slovene: Slovenija [slɔˈʋèːnija]),[12] officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: Republika Slovenija ,[13] abbr.: RS[14]), is a country in Central Europe.[15] It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest.[16] Slovenia is mostly mountainous and forested,[17] covers 20,271 square kilometres (7,827 sq mi), and has a population of 2.1 million (2,108,708 people).[18] Slovenes constitute over 80% of the country's population.[19] Slovene, a South Slavic language, is the official language.[20] Slovenia has a predominantly continental climate,[21] with the exception of the Slovene Littoral and the Julian Alps. A sub-mediterranean climate reaches to the northern extensions of the Dinaric Alps that traverse the country in a northwest–southeast direction. The Julian Alps in the northwest have an alpine climate.[22] Toward the northeastern Pannonian Plain, a continental climate is more pronounced. Ljubljana, the capital and largest city of Slovenia, is geographically situated near the centre of the country.[23]

Republic of Slovenia
Republika Slovenija  (Slovene)
Anthem: Zdravljica
(English: "A Toast")
Location of Slovenia (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (green)

and largest city
46°03′N 14°30′E
Official languagesSlovene[lower-roman 1]
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Borut Pahor
Robert Golob
Urška Klakočar Zupančič
National Council
National Assembly
29 October 1918
1 December 1918
19 February 1944
29 July 1944
 Independence from
25 June 1991[4]
 Brioni Agreement
7 July 1991
23 December 1991
 Admitted to the United Nations
22 May 1992
1 May 2004
20,271 km2 (7,827 sq mi) (150th)
 Water (%)
 2021 estimate
2,108,708[6] (147th)
 2002 census
103[6]/km2 (266.8/sq mi) (106th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
$102.4 billion[7] (93rd)
 Per capita
$48,533[7] (37th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
$63.6 billion[7] (80th)
 Per capita
$30,159[7] (36th)
Gini (2020) 23.5[8]
HDI (2019) 0.917[9]
very high · 22nd
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
Date formatdd. mm. yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+386
ISO 3166 codeSI
Internet[lower-roman 2]
  1. Hungarian and Italian are co-official in some municipalities.
  2. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of Slavic, Germanic, and Romance languages and cultures.[15] Its territory has been part of many different states: the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Carolingian Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Republic of Venice, the Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon's First French Empire, the Austrian Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[16] In October 1918, the Slovenes co-founded the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs.[24] In December 1918, they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.[25] During World War II, Germany, Italy, and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a newly declared Nazi puppet state.[26] In 1945, it again became part of Yugoslavia. Post-war, Yugoslavia was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact, and in 1961 it became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement.[27] In June 1991, Slovenia became the first republic to split from Yugoslavia and become an independent sovereign state.[4]

Slovenia is a developed country, with a high-income economy ranking highly in the Human Development Index.[28] The Gini index rates its income inequality among the lowest in the world.[29] It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Schengen Area, the OSCE, the OECD, the Council of Europe, and NATO.[30]

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