Shiraz (/ʃɪəˈrɑːz/ (listen); Persian: شیراز, romanized: Šîrâz [ʃiːˈɾɒːz] (listen)) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran[3] and the capital of its Fars Province, which has been historically known as Pars (پارس, Pārs) and Persis.[4] As of the 2016 national census, the population of the city was 1,565,572 people, and its built-up area with Sadra was home to almost 1,800,000 inhabitants.[5] A census in 2021 showed an increase in the city's population to 1,995,500 people.[6] The city is located in southwestern Iran on the rudkhaneye khoshk (lit.'dry river') seasonal river. It has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for over a thousand years. Shiraz is one of the oldest cities of ancient Iran.

City of Gardens
Location of Shiraz within Iran
Coordinates: 29°36′36″N 52°32′33″E
  TypeCity Council
  MayorEhsan Asnafi
  City240 km2 (86.487 sq mi)
  Land240 km2 (86.487 sq mi)
  Water0 km2 (0 sq mi)  0%
1,500 m (5,200 ft)
 (2016 census)
  Density6,670/km2 (18,600/sq mi)
  Population rank
5th (Iran)
Time zoneUTC+03:30 (IRST)
  Summer (DST)UTC+04:30 (IRDT)
Area code(s)071
Routes Road 65
Road 67
Road 86
Shiraz–Isfahan Freeway
License plate63-93

The earliest reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BCE.[7] The modern city was restored or founded by the Arab Umayyad Caliphate in 693 CE and grew prominent under the successive Iranian Saffarid and Buyid dynasties in the 9th and 10th–11th centuries, respectively. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, due to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. It was the capital of Iran during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1800. Two famous poets of Iran, Hafez and Saadi, are from Shiraz, whose tombs are located on the north side of the current city boundaries.

Shiraz is known as the city of poets, literature, and flowers.[8][9] It is also considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens due to the presence of many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen throughout the city, such as Eram Garden. Shiraz has historically had major Jewish and Christian communities. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silverware; pile carpet-weaving and weaving of kilim, called gilim and jajim in the villages and among the tribes.[10] Dominant industries in the city include the production of cement, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork, and rugs.[citation needed] Shiraz also has a major oil refinery and is a major centre for Iran's electronic industries: 53 percent of Iran's electronic investment has been centred in Shiraz.[11] The city is home to Iran's first solar powerplant.[12] Recently, Shiraz's first wind turbine has been installed above Mount Babakuhi near the city.

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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Shiraz, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.