Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Cрбија и Црна Гора, Srbija i Crna Gora) was a country in Southeast Europe located in the Balkans that existed from 1992 to 2006, following the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia) which bordered Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Albania to the southwest. The state was founded on 27 April 1992 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, known as FR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia which comprised the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro. In February 2003, FR Yugoslavia was transformed from a federal republic to a political union until Montenegro seceded from the union in June 2006, leading to the full independence of both Serbia and Montenegro.

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Савезна Република Југославија
Savezna Republika Jugoslavija

Serbia and Montenegro

Србија и Црна Гора
Srbija i Crna Gora
Anthem: "Хеј, Словени" / "Hej, Sloveni"
"Hey, Slavs"
Map of FR Yugoslavia (green) in 2003
StatusRump state of SFR Yugoslavia
and largest city
Official languagesSerbo-Croatian (1992–1997)
Serbian (1997–2006)
Recognized languagesAlbanian · Hungarian
Demonym(s)Yugoslav (until 2003)
Serb · Montenegrin (from 2003)
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional republic (1992–2003) under an authoritarian regime (1992–2000)
Confederated constitutional republic with an executive presidency (2003–2006)
Head of state 
Dobrica Ćosić
Zoran Lilić
Slobodan Milošević
Vojislav Koštunica
Svetozar Marović
Head of government 
 1992–1993 (first)
Milan Panić
 2003–2006 (last)
Svetozar Marović
LegislatureFederal Assembly (Parliament)
House of Republics
House of Citizens
 Constitution adopted
27 April 1992
5 October 2000
1 November 2000
4 February 2003
3 June 2006
5 June 2006
102,173 km2 (39,449 sq mi)
 2006 estimate
GDP (PPP)1995 estimate
$11.6 billion[1]
 Per capita
HDI (1996) 0.725[1]
high · 87th


Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
Driving sideRight
Calling code+381
Internet TLD.yu
Preceded by
Succeeded by
SFR Yugoslavia
SR Serbia
SR Montenegro
Today part ofSerbia
  1. ^ After 2003, no city was the official capital, but legislative and executive institutions remained located in Belgrade. Podgorica served as the seat of the Supreme Court.
  2. ^ Membership as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
  3. ^ De facto currencies used in Montenegro and Albanian parts of Kosovo.
  4. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 100 UN member states (with another 13 states recognising it at some point but then withdrawing their recognition) and 93 states not recognizing it, while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.
  5. ^ New flag was never adopted, instead, both sides used their own flags.

Its aspirations to be the sole legal successor state to SFR Yugoslavia were not recognized by the United Nations, following the passing of United Nations Security Council Resolution 777,[2] which affirmed that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had ceased to exist, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a new state. All former republics were entitled to state succession while none of them continued SFR Yugoslavia's international legal personality. However, the government of Slobodan Milošević opposed any such claims, and as such, FR Yugoslavia was not allowed to join the United Nations.

Throughout its existence, FR Yugoslavia had a tense relationship with the international community, as economic sanctions[3] were issued against the state during the course of the Yugoslav Wars and Kosovo War. This also resulted in hyperinflation between 1992 and 1994.[4] FR Yugoslavia's involvement in the Yugoslav Wars ended with the Dayton Agreement, which recognized the independence of the Republics of Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as establishing diplomatic relationships between the states, and a guaranteed role of the Serbian population within Bosnian politics.[5] Later on, growing separatism within the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, a region of Serbia heavily populated by ethnic Albanians, resulted in an insurrection by the Kosovo Liberation Army, an Albanian separatist group.[6][7] The outbreak of the Kosovo War reintroduced Western sanctions, as well as eventual Western involvement in the conflict. The conflict ended with the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, which guaranteed economic and political separation of Kosovo from FR Yugoslavia, to be placed under UN Administration.[8] Kosovo declared independence in 2008.

Economic hardship and war resulted in growing discontent with the government of Slobodan Milošević and his allies, who ran both Serbia and Montenegro as an effective dictatorship.[9] This would eventually cumulate in the Bulldozer revolution, which saw his government overthrown, and replaced by one led by the Democratic Opposition of Serbia and Vojislav Koštunica, which also joined the UN.[10][11]

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ended in 2003 after the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia voted to enact the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro, which established the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. As such, the name Yugoslavia was consigned to history.[12] Growing separatism in Montenegro, led by Milo Đukanović[13] meant that the Constitution of Serbia and Montenegro included a stanza allowing for a referendum on the question of Montenegrin independence,[14] after a period of three years had passed. In 2006, the referendum was called, and passed,[15] by a narrow margin. This led to the dissolution of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, and the establishment of the independent republics of Serbia and Montenegro, turning Serbia into a landlocked country. This can be considered the last act which finalized the dissolution of Yugoslavia.[16]

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