Saskatchewan (/səˈskætʃəwən, skætʃwən/ (listen) sə-SKATCH-ə-wən; Canadian French: [saskatʃəwan]) is a province in Western Canada, bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, to the northeast by Nunavut, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. Saskatchewan and Alberta are the only landlocked provinces of Canada. In 2022, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at 1,214,618. Nearly 10% of Saskatchewan’s total area of 651,900 square kilometres (251,700 sq mi) is fresh water, mostly rivers, reservoirs and lakes.
|Coordinates: 54°00′00″N 106°00′02″W|
|Confederation||September 1, 1905 (split from NWT) (10th, with Alberta)|
|Largest metro||Greater Saskatoon|
|• Type||Parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|• Lieutenant governor||Russell Mirasty|
|• Premier||Scott Moe|
|Legislature||Legislature of Saskatchewan|
|Federal representation||Parliament of Canada|
|House seats||14 of 338 (4.1%)|
|Senate seats||6 of 105 (5.7%)|
|• Total||651,900 km2 (251,700 sq mi)|
|• Land||591,670 km2 (228,450 sq mi)|
|• Water||59,366 km2 (22,921 sq mi) 9.1%|
|6.5% of Canada|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1.91/km2 (4.9/sq mi)|
|Official languages||English|
|• Total (2015)||CA$79.415 billion|
|• Per capita||CA$70,138 (4th)|
|• HDI (2019)||0.921 — Very high (8th)|
|year-round in most areas||UTC−06:00 (Central)|
|Lloydminster and nearby areas||UTC−07:00 (Mountain)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−06:00 (Mountain DST)|
|Canadian postal abbr.|
|Postal code prefix|
|ISO 3166 code||CA-SK|
|Flower||Western red lily|
|Rankings include all provinces and territories|
Residents primarily live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern half is mostly forested and sparsely populated. Roughly half live in the province's largest city Saskatoon or the provincial capital Regina. Other notable cities include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift Current, North Battleford, Estevan, Weyburn, Melfort, and the border city Lloydminster. English is the primary language of the province, with 82.4% of Saskatchewanians speaking English as their first language.
Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous groups. Europeans first explored the area in 1690 and first settled in the area in 1774. It became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast North-West Territories, which had until then included most of the Canadian Prairies. In the early 20th century, the province became known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; North America's first social-democratic government was elected in 1944. The province's economy is based on agriculture, mining, and energy.
Saskatchewan is presently governed by premier Scott Moe, a member of the Saskatchewan Party which has been in power since 2007.
In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with First Nations in Saskatchewan. The First Nations received compensation which they could use to buy land on the open market for the bands. They have acquired about 3,079 square kilometres (761,000 acres; 1,189 sq mi), new reserve lands under this process. Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including Regina and Saskatoon.