Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Russian: Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, romanized: Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə sɐˈvʲetskəjə fʲɪdʲɪrɐˈtʲivnəjə sətsɨəlʲɪˈsʲtʲitɕɪskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə] (listen)), previously known as the Russian Soviet Republic,[8] and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic,[9] as well as being unofficially referred to as Soviet Russia,[10] the Russian Federation,[11] or simply Russia, was an independent federal socialist state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest and most populous Soviet socialist republic of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1922 to 1991, until becoming a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, the last two years of the existence of the USSR.[12] The Russian SFSR was composed of sixteen smaller constituent units of autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais and forty oblasts.[12] Russians formed the largest ethnic group. The capital of the Russian SFSR and the USSR as a whole was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Stalingrad, Novosibirsk, Sverdlovsk, Gorky and Kuybyshev. It was the first Marxist-Leninist state in the world.

Russian Soviet Federative
Socialist Republic
Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика
Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika
Flag of the Russian SFSR
State emblem(1978–1991) of the Russian SFSR
State emblem
Motto: Workers of the world, unite!
Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes'! (tr.)
The Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) between 1956 and 1991
The Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) between 1956 and 1991
Largest cityMoscow
Official languagesRussianb
Recognised languagesSee Languages of Russia
Head of state 
 1917 (first)
Lev Kamenevc
 1990–1991 (last)
Boris Yeltsind
Head of government 
 1917–1924 (first)
Vladimir Lenine
Ivan Silayevf
 1991 (last)
Boris Yeltsing
7 November 1917
30 December 1922
19 February 1954
12 June 1990
12 December 1991
 Russian SFSR renamed into the Russian Federation
25 December 1991
26 December 1991
25 December 1993
1956[citation needed]17,125,200 km2 (6,612,100 sq mi)
 1989[citation needed]
CurrencySoviet ruble (Rbl)h (SUR)
Time zone(UTC +2 to +12)
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian Republic
Russian State
Far Eastern Republic
Priamurye Government
Finland (portion)
Germany (portion)
Japan (portion)
Karelo-Finnish SSR
Ukrainian People's Republic (portion)
Estonia (portion)
Belarusian People's Republic (portion)
Latvia (portion)
Soviet Union
Uzbek SSR (portion)
Turkmen SSR
Byelorussian SSR (portion)
Kazakh SSR
Karelo-Finnish SSR
Russian Federation
  1. Remained the national anthem of Russia until 2000.
  2. Official language in the courts from 1937.[5]
  3. As Chairman of the VTsIK (All-Russian Central Executive Committee).
  4. As chairman the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR from 29 May 1990 to 10 July 1991, then as President.
  5. As Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR
  6. As Chairmen of the Council of Ministers – Government of the Russian SFSR
  7. Served as acting head of government while President of Russia
  8. Between 1917 and 1919 the Imperial ruble lost all of its value due to overprinting. It would be replaced that same year by the new Soviet ruble.[6]
Seven Hero City awards
The Russian Democratic Federative Republic existed briefly on 19 January 1918, but actual sovereignty was still in the hands of the Soviets even after the Russian Constituent Assembly opened its first and last session in 1918.[7]

The economy of Russia became heavily industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR. By 1961, it was the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region[13] and Siberia, trailing in production to only the United States and Saudi Arabia.[14] In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care.[12] After 1985, the "perestroika" restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration relatively liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s under General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives.

On 7 November 1917 [O.S. 25 October], as a result of the October Revolution, the Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state guided by communist ideology. The first constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922, the Russian SFSR signed a treaty officially creating the USSR. The Russian SFSR's 1978 constitution stated that "[a] Union Republic is a sovereign [...] state that has united [...] in the Union"[15] and "each Union Republic shall retain the right freely to secede from the USSR".[16] On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, established separation of powers (unlike in the Soviet form of government), established citizenship of Russia and stated that the RSFSR shall retain the right of free secession from the USSR. On 12 June 1991, Boris Yeltsin (1931–2007), supported by the Democratic Russia pro-reform movement, was elected the first and only President of the RSFSR, a post that would later become the Presidency of the Russian Federation.

The August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt in Moscow with the temporary brief internment of President Mikhail Gorbachev destabilised the Soviet Union. Following these events, Gorbachev lost all his remaining power, with Yeltsin superseding him as the pre-eminent figure in the country. On 8 December 1991, the heads of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belovezha Accords. The agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its original founding states (i.e., renunciation of the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR) and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as a loose replacement confederation. On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet (the parliament of the Russian SFSR); therefore the Russian SFSR had renounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and de facto declared Russia's independence from the USSR itself and the ties with the other Soviet republics.

On 25 December 1991, following the resignation of Gorbachev as President of the Soviet Union (and former General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation.[17] The next day, after the lowering of the Soviet flag from the top of the Senate building of the Moscow Kremlin and its replacement by the Russian flag, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of the Republics on 26 December, which by that time was the only functioning parliamentary chamber of the All-Union Supreme Soviet (the other house, Soviet of the Union, had already lost the quorum after recall of its members by the several union republics). After the dissolution, Russia took full responsibility for all the rights and obligations of the USSR under the Charter of the United Nations, including the financial obligations. As such, Russia assumed the Soviet Union's UN membership and permanent membership on the Security Council, nuclear stockpile and the control over the armed forces; Soviet embassies abroad became Russian embassies.[18]

The 1978 constitution of the Russian SFSR was amended several times to reflect the transition to democracy, private property and market economy. The new Russian constitution, coming into effect on 25 December 1993 after a constitutional crisis, completely abolished the Soviet form of government and replaced it with a semi-presidential system.

Share this article:

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.