Rubāʿī (Persian: رباعی, romanized: rubāʿiy; plural: رباعيات, rubāʿiyāt) or chahārgāna (Persian: چهارگانه)[1] is the term for a quatrain, a poem or a verse of a poem consisting of four lines. It refers specifically to a form of Persian poetry, or its derivative form in English and other languages.

Calligraphic rendition of a ruba'i attributed to Omar Khayyam from Bodleian MS. Ouseley 140 (one of the sources of FitzGerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam).

In classical Persian poetry, the ruba'i is written as a four-line (or two-couplet) poem, with a rhyme-scheme AABA or AAAA.[2][3][4][5]

This is an example of a ruba'i from Rūmī's Dīwān-i Shams:

Anwār-i Ṣalāḥ-i Dīn bar angēkhta bād
Dar dīda u jān-i ʿāshiqān rēkhta bād
Har jān ki laṭīf gasht u az luṭf guzasht
Bā khāk-i Ṣalāḥ-i Dīn dar āmēkhta bād

May the splendors of Salahuddin be roused,
And poured into the eyes and souls of the lovers.
May every soul that has become refined and has surpassed refinement
Be mingled with the dust of Salahuddin![6]

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