Rotterdam (/ˈrɒtərdæm/ ROT-ər-dam, UK also /ˌrɒtərˈdæm/ ROT-ər-DAM, Dutch: [ˌrɔtərˈdɑm] (listen); lit. "The Dam on the River Rotte") is the second largest city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is in the province of South Holland, part of the North Sea mouth of the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, via the "New Meuse" inland shipping channel, dug to connect to the Meuse first, but now to the Rhine instead.
City and municipality
Rotown, Roffa, Rotjeknor, Nultien, 010
Sterker door strijd (Stronger through struggle)
|Coordinates: 51°55′N 4°30′E|
|• Body||Municipal council|
|• Mayor||Ahmed Aboutaleb (PvdA)|
|• Municipality||324.14 km2 (125.15 sq mi)|
|• Land||217.55 km2 (84.00 sq mi)|
|• Water||106.59 km2 (41.15 sq mi)|
|• Randstad||3,043 km2 (1,175 sq mi)|
|Elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|• Density||2,995/km2 (7,760/sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,390,101 [lower-alpha 1]|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Website||rotterdam.nl (in Dutch)|
|Click on the map for a fullscreen view|
Rotterdam's history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by William IV, Count of Holland. The Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 10th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country.
A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe's largest seaport. In 2022, it had a population of 655,468 and is home to over 180 nationalities. Rotterdam is known for its university, riverside setting, lively cultural life, maritime heritage and modern architecture. The near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including skyscrapers designed by architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel.
The Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the highly industrialized Ruhr. The extensive distribution system including rail, roads, and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".