671,985–1,079,726 (2021) Romanian citizens of all ethnic groups. The second number includes all Romanians in Spain, thus taking into account second and third generation Romanians or nationalized ones that count as Spanish in the census.
In one interpretation of the 1989 census results in Moldova, the majority of Moldovans were counted as ethnic Romanians. Romanians also form an ethnic minority in several nearby countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
Estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 24 to 30 million, in part depending on whether the definition of the term "Romanian" includes natives of both Romania and Moldova, their respective diasporas, and native speakers of both Romanian and other Balkan Romance languages. Other speakers of the latter languages are the Aromanians, the Megleno-Romanians, and the Istro-Romanians, which may be considered Romanian subgroups or separated yet related ethnicities.