Qatar

Qatar (/ˈkætɑːr/,[10] /ˈkɑːtɑːr/ (listen), /ˈkɑːtər/ or /kəˈtɑːr/ (listen);[11] Arabic: قطر, romanized: Qaṭar [ˈqatˤar]; local vernacular pronunciation: [ˈɡɪtˤɑr]),[12][13] officially the State of Qatar,[lower-alpha 1] is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares its sole land border with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Bahrain, an inlet of the Persian Gulf, separates Qatar from nearby Bahrain. The capital is Doha, home to over 80% of the nation's population.

State of Qatar
دولة قطر (Arabic)
Dawlat Qaṭar
Motto: الله الوطن الأمير
God, Nation, Emir
Anthem: السلام الأميري
As-Salām al-ʾAmīrī  (transliteration)
"Peace to the Emir"
Location and extent of Qatar (dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula
Capital
and largest city
Doha
25°18′N 51°31′E
Official languagesArabic[1]
Common languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups
(2015)[2]
Religion
(2020)[3]
Demonym(s)Qatari
GovernmentUnitary Islamic parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
 Emir
Tamim bin Hamad
Khalid bin Khalifa
LegislatureConsultative Assembly
Establishment
18 December 1878
 Declared independence

1 September 1971
 Independence from the United Kingdom

3 September 1971
Area
 Total
11,581 km2 (4,471 sq mi) (158th)
 Water (%)
0.8
Population
 2020 estimate
2,795,484[4] (139th)
 2010 census
1,699,435[5]
 Density
176/km2 (455.8/sq mi) (76th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$315.299 billion[6] (51st)
 Per capita
$112,789[6] (4th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$236.257 billion[6] (56th)
 Per capita
$84,514[6] (6th)
Gini (2007)41.1[7]
medium
HDI (2019) 0.848[8]
very high · 45th
CurrencyQatari riyal (QAR)
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Driving sideright[9]
Calling code+974
ISO 3166 codeQA
Internet TLD

Qatar has been ruled as a hereditary monarchy by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. The current emir is Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, who holds nearly all executive and legislative authority under the Constitution of Qatar, as well as controlling the judiciary.[14] He appoints the prime minister and cabinet. The partially-elected Consultative Assembly can block legislation and has a limited ability to dismiss ministers.

In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates.[15] Its official religion is Islam.[16] In terms of income, the country has the fourth-highest GDP (PPP) per capita in the world,[17] and the sixth-highest GNI per capita (Atlas method).[18] Qatar has the third-highest HDI in the Arab world.[19] It is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves.[20] Qatar is the world's largest exporter of liquefied natural gas,[21] and the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide per capita.[22]

In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a middle power in the Arab world through its resource-wealth,[23][24] as well as its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, and reportedly supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring.[25][26][27] Qatar's human rights record has been regarded by academics and non-governmental organisations as being generally poor, with restrictions on civil liberties such as the freedoms of association, expression and the press, as well as its treatment of thousands of migrant workers amounting to forced labour for projects in the country.[28][29] The 2022 FIFA World Cup was awarded to Qatar under controversial circumstances, making it the first Muslim country in the Arab world to host the event.[30] Qatar hosted the 2006 Asian Games, and will also host the 2030 Asian Games.[31]


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