Prussia[lower-alpha 3] was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centered on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia, with its capital first in Königsberg and then, when it became the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701, in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany.

Preußen  (German)
Prūsa  (Prussian)
1525–1947[lower-alpha 1]
State flag (1803–1892)
Motto: Gott mit uns
Nobiscum deus
("God with us")
("Song of Prussia")
Royal anthem: 
Heil dir im Siegerkranz
("Hail to thee in the Victor's Crown")[1]
("Hail to Thee in the Victor's Crown")
The Kingdom of Prussia at its territorial peak in 1870
The Free State of Prussia in 1925
CapitalKönigsberg (1525–1701)
Berlin (1701–1806)
Königsberg (1806)
Berlin (1806–1947)
Common languagesOfficial:
Religious confessions in
the Kingdom of Prussia 1880

64.64% United Protestant
(Lutheran, Calvinist)
33.75% Catholic
1.33% Jewish
0.19% Other Christian
0.09% Other
GovernmentFeudal monarchy (1525–1701)
Absolute monarchy (1701–1848)
Federal parliamentary
semi-constitutional monarchy (1848–1918)
Federal semi-presidential
constitutional republic (1918–1932)
Authoritarian presidential republic (1932–1933)
Nazi single-party dictatorship (1933–1945)
Allied-occupied Germany (1945–1947)
Albert I (first)
Frederick I (last)
Frederick I (first)
Wilhelm II (last)
Minister-President1, 2 
Friedrich Ebert (first)
Hermann Göring (last)
Historical eraEarly modern Europe to Contemporary
10 April 1525
27 August 1618
18 January 1701
9 November 1918
 Abolition (de facto, loss of independence)
30 January 1934
25 February 1947[lower-alpha 2]
CurrencyReichsthaler (until 1750)
Prussian thaler (1750–1857)
Vereinsthaler (1857–1873)
German gold mark (1873–1914)
German Papiermark (1914–1923)
Reichsmark (1924–1947)
Today part of
  • 1 The heads of state listed here are the first and last to hold each title over time. For more information, see individual Prussian state articles (links in above History section).
  • 2 The position of Ministerpräsident was introduced in 1792 when Prussia was a Kingdom; the Minister-Presidents shown here are the heads of the Prussian republic.

In 1871, owing to the efforts of Prussian Minister-President Otto von Bismarck, most German principalities were united into the German Empire under Prussian leadership, although this was considered to be a "Lesser Germany" because Austria and Switzerland were not included. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1932, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, which was taken further in the next few years when the Nazi regime successfully established its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. The remaining legal status finally ended in 1947.[3]

The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians; in the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights—an organized Catholic medieval military order of German crusaders—conquered the lands inhabited by them. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Danzig (modern-day Gdańsk). Their monastic state was mostly Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The imposed Second Peace of Thorn (1466) split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, becoming a province of Poland, and the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a feudal fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.

Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom.[4][5] It became increasingly large and powerful in the 18th and 19th centuries. It had a major voice in European affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great (1740–1786). At the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr. The country then grew rapidly in influence economically and politically, and became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, and then of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians.

The Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that were terminated by the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was effectively dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935. Nevertheless, some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the Polish People's Republic and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was officially abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947. The international status of the former eastern territories of the Kingdom of Prussia was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, but its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists.

The term Prussian has often been used, especially outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness, militarism and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and then the German Empire.

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