Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 3] is a country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira. It features the westernmost point in continental Europe, and its Iberian portion is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, the sole country to have a land border with Portugal. Its two archipelagos form two autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Lisbon is the capital and largest city by population.

Portuguese Republic
República Portuguesa (Portuguese)
Motto: 
Esta é a ditosa Pátria minha amada
"This is my blissful beloved homeland"
Anthem: 
A Portuguesa
"The Portuguese"
Location of Portugal (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Lisbon
38°46′N 9°9′W
Official languagesPortuguese
Recognised regional languagesMirandese[note 1]
Ethnic groups
(2021)
Religion
(2011)[3]
Demonym(s)Portuguese
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic[4]
 President
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
António Costa
LegislatureAssembly of the Republic
Establishment
868
1095
24 June 1128
 Kingdom
25 July 1139
5 October 1143
1 December 1640
23 September 1822
 Republic
5 October 1910
25 April 1974
25 April 1976[note 2]
1 January 1986
Area
 Total
92,212 km2 (35,603 sq mi)[5] (109th)
 Water (%)
1.2 (2015)[6]
Population
 2021 estimate
10,352,042[7] (89th)
 2021 census
10,344,802[8]
 Density
112.2[9]/km2 (290.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$419.7 billion[10] (52nd)
 Per capita
$40,805[10] (42nd)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$251.9 billion[10] (51st)
 Per capita
$24,495[10] (53rd)
Gini (2020) 31.2[11]
medium
HDI (2021) 0.866[12]
very high · 38th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (WET)
UTC−1 (Atlantic/Azores)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (WEST)
UTC (Atlantic/Azores)
Note: Continental Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, the Azores are 1 hour behind.
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+351
ISO 3166 codePT
Internet TLD.pt
  1. ^ Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),[1] awarding it an official right-of-use.[2] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
  2. ^ By country of birth
  3. ^ Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976 with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005.

Portugal is the oldest continuously existing nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. It was inhabited by pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples who had contact with Phoenicians and Ancient Greek traders, it was ruled by the Romans, followed by the invasions of the Suebi and Visigothic Germanic peoples, in turn followed by the Moors who eventually were expelled. Portugal as a county was established during the early Christian Reconquista. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede (1128). The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique (1139), and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora (1143).[13]

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global maritime and commercial empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers.[14] During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration with the discovery of what would become Brazil (1500). During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castile, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. By the 18th century however, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822) led to a marked decay of Portugal's prior opulence.[15] This was followed by the civil war between liberal constitutionalists and conservative absolutists over royal succession, which lasted from 1828 to 1834.

The 1910 revolution deposed Portugal's centuries-old monarchy, and established the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic, later being superseded by the Estado Novo authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution (1974), ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China (1999) marked the end of one of the longest-lived colonial empires in history.

Portugal has left a profound cultural, architectural and linguistic influence across the globe, with a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers around the world. It is a developed country with an advanced economy and high living standards.[16][17][18] Additionally, it ranks highly in peacefulness, democracy,[19] press freedom, stability, social progress, prosperity and English proficiency. A member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Schengen Area and the Council of Europe (CoE), Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.


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