Poles,[lower-alpha 1] or Polish people, are a West Slavic nation[33][34][35] and ethnic group, who share a common history, culture, the Polish language and are identified with the country of Poland in Central Europe. The preamble to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland defines the Polish nation as comprising all the citizens of Poland, regardless of heritage or ethnicity. The majority of Poles adhere to Roman Catholicism.[32]

Polacy (Polish)
Total population
c.60 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Poland   37,394,000 (2011)[2]
 United States10,600,000 (2015)[1][3][4]
 Germany2,253,000 (2018)[5]
 Brazil1,800,000 (2007)[6]
 Canada1,010,705 (2013)[7]
 United Kingdom695,000 (2019)[8]
 Argentina500,000 (2014)[9]
 France350,000 (2012)[10][11]
 Belarus288,000 (2019)[12]
 Russia273,000 (2013)[13]
 Australia216,056 (2006)[14]
 Israel202,300 (2011)[15]
Lithuania183,000 (2021)[16]
 Ukraine144,130 (2001)[17]
 Ireland112,500 (2018)[18]
 Norway108,255 (2019)[19]
 Italy97,000 (2016)[6][20]
 Sweden75,323 (2012)[21]
 Austria69,898 (2015)[22]
 Spain63,000 (2019)[23]
 Netherlands60,000 (2017)[13]
 Belgium49,600 (2019)[23]
 Latvia44,783 (2011)[24]
 Denmark37,876 (2014)[25]
 Kazakhstan34,057 (2018)[26]
 South Africa30,000 (2014)[27]
 Czech Republic20,305 (2017)[28]
 Hungary20,000 (2018)[6][29]
  Switzerland20,000 (2007)[6]
 Iceland17,010 (2018)[30]
 Paraguay16,748 (2012)[31]
 Greece15,000 (2019)[23]
 United Arab Emirates14,500 (2015)[13]
 Chile10,000 (2007)[6]
 Mexico10,000 (2007)[6]
 Moldova10,000 (2007)[6]
 Slovakia10,000 (2007)[6]
 Uruguay10,000 (2007)[6]
Predominantly Roman Catholicism[32]
Related ethnic groups
Czechs, Gorals, Kashubians, Moravians, Silesians, Slovaks, Sorbs

The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,512,000 (based on the 2011 census),[36] of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone.[2][37][4] A wide-ranging Polish diaspora (the Polonia) exists throughout Europe, the Americas, and in Australasia. Today, the largest urban concentrations of Poles are within the Warsaw and Silesian metropolitan areas.

Ethnic Poles are considered to be the descendants of the ancient West Slavic Lechites and other tribes that inhabited the Polish territories during the late antiquity period. Poland's recorded history dates back over a thousand years to c. 930–960 AD, when the Western Polans – an influential tribe in the Greater Poland region – united various Lechitic clans under what became the Piast dynasty,[38] thus creating the first Polish state. The subsequent Christianization of Poland by the Catholic Church, in 966 CE, marked Poland's advent to the community of Western Christendom. However, throughout its existence, the Polish state followed a tolerant policy towards minorities resulting in numerous ethnic and religious identities of the Poles, such as Polish Jews.

Poles have made important contributions to the world in every major field of human endeavor, among them Copernicus, Marie Curie, Joseph Conrad, Frédéric Chopin and Pope John Paul II. Notable Polish émigrés – many of them forced from their homeland by historic vicissitudes – have included physicist Joseph Rotblat, mathematician Stanisław Ulam, pianist Arthur Rubinstein, actresses Helena Modjeska and Pola Negri, military leaders Tadeusz Kościuszko and Casimir Pulaski, U.S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, politician Rosa Luxemburg, painter Tamara de Lempicka, filmmakers Samuel Goldwyn and the Warner Brothers, cartoonist Max Fleischer, and cosmeticians Helena Rubinstein and Max Factor.

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