Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (Persian: خلیج فارس, romanized: xalij-e fârs, lit.'Gulf of Fars', pronounced [xæliːdʒe fɒːɾs]) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.[1] It is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz. The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline.

Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf from space
LocationWestern Asia
Coordinates26°N 52°E
TypeGulf
Primary inflowsGulf of Oman
Basin countriesIran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Oman (exclave of Musandam)
Max. length989 km (615 mi)
Surface area251,000 km2 (97,000 sq mi)
Average depth50 m (160 ft)
Max. depth90 m (300 ft)
Persian Gulf at Night from ISS, 2020.

The Persian Gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive reefs (mostly rocky, but also coral), and abundant pearl oysters, but its ecology has been damaged by industrialization and oil spills.

The Persian Gulf is in the Persian Gulf Basin, which is of Cenozoic origin and related to the subduction of the Arabian Plate under the Zagros Mountains.[2] The current flooding of the basin started 15,000 years ago due to rising sea levels of the Holocene glacial retreat.[3]


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