Pashto[lower-alpha 1] (/ˈpʌʃt/,[5][3][4]/ˈpæʃt/;[lower-alpha 2] پښتو, Pəx̌tó, [pəʂˈto, pʊxˈto, pəʃˈto, pəçˈto]), is an Eastern Iranian language in the Indo-European language family. It is known in historical Persian literature as Afghani (افغانی, Afghāni).[7]

The word Pax̌tó written in the Pashto alphabet
Pronunciation[pəʂˈto], [pʊxˈto], [pəçˈto], [pəʃˈto]
Native toAfghanistan, Pakistan
Native speakers
40–60 million
Standard forms
DialectsPashto dialects
Pashto alphabet
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Pashto Academy Quetta
Language codes
ISO 639-1ps – Pashto, Pushto
ISO 639-2pus – Pushto, Pashto
ISO 639-3pus – inclusive code – Pashto, Pushto
Individual codes:
pst  Central Pashto
pbu  Northern Pashto
pbt  Southern Pashto
wne  Wanetsi
Glottologpash1269  Pashto
Areas in Afghanistan and Pakistan where Pashto is:
  the predominant language
  spoken alongside other languages
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Spoken as a native language mostly by ethnic Pashtuns, it is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan alongside Dari,[8][1][9] and it is the second-largest provincial language of Pakistan, spoken mainly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern districts of Balochistan.[10] Likewise, it is the primary language of the Pashtun diaspora around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is at least 40 million,[11] although some estimates place it as high as 60 million.[12] Pashto is "one of the primary markers of ethnic identity" amongst Pashtuns.[13]

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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Pashto, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.