Panama (/ˈpænəmɑː/ (listen) PAN-ə-mah, /pænəˈmɑː/ pan-ə-MAH; Spanish: Panamá IPA: [panaˈma] (listen)), officially the Republic of Panama (Spanish: República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country spanning the central part[10] of North America and the northern part of South America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south. Its capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people.[11][12]

Republic of Panama
República de Panamá  (Spanish)
Motto: Pro Mundi Beneficio (Latin)
"For the Benefit of the World"
Anthem: Himno Istmeño  (Spanish)
"Hymn of the Isthmus"
and largest city
Panama City
8°58′N 79°32′W
Official languagesSpanish
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
Laurentino Cortizo
Jose Gabriel Carrizo
LegislatureNational Assembly
 from Spanish Empire
November 28, 1821
 union with Gran Colombia
December 1821
 from Republic of Colombia
November 3, 1903
November 13, 1945
October 11, 1972
75,417 km2 (29,119 sq mi)[3][4] (116th)
 Water (%)
 2021 estimate
 2010 census
56/km2 (145.0/sq mi) (122nd)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
$128.500 billion[7] (80th)
 Per capita
$29,608[7] (57th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
$59.260 billion[7] (70th)
 Per capita
$13,849[7] (52nd)
Gini (2017) 49.9[8]
HDI (2019) 0.815[9]
very high · 57th
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+507
ISO 3166 codePA

Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Spanish colonists arrived in the 16th century. It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, and Venezuela. After Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada eventually became the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the construction of the Panama Canal to be completed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. The 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties agreed to transfer the canal from the United States to Panama on December 31, 1999.[13] The surrounding territory was first returned in 1979.[14]

Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. It is regarded as having a high-income economy.[15] In 2019 Panama ranked 57th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index.[9] In 2018, Panama was ranked the seventh-most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index.[16] Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them found nowhere else on earth.[17] Panama is a founding member of the United Nations and other international organizations such as OAS, LAIA, G77, WHO, and NAM.

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