Ottoman units of measurement

The list of traditional Turkish units of measurement, a.k.a. Ottoman units of measurement, is given below.

History

The Ottoman Empire (12991923), the predecessor of modern Turkey was one of the 17 signatories of the Metre Convention in 1875. For 58 years both the international and the traditional units were in use, but after the proclamation of the Turkish Republic, the traditional units became obsolete. In 1931 by Act No. 1782, international units became compulsory and the traditional units were banned from use starting 1 January 1933.[1]

List of units

Length

Local name In English Equivalence In modern units [2]
nokta نقطه point 0.219 mm (0.0086 in)
hat خط‎ line 12 nokta 2.63 mm (0.104 in)
parmak پرمق finger 12 hat 31.57 mm (1.243 in)
kerrab or kirab 42.5 mm (1.67 in)
rubu or urup 2 kerrab 85 mm (3.3 in)
ayak or kadem آیاق foot 12 parmak 378.87 mm (1.2430 ft)
endaze ell 650 mm (2.13 ft)
arşın آرشين or آرشون ell 68 cm (2.23 ft)
zirai agricultural/yard 2 ayak 757.74 mm (2.4860 ft)
kulaç fathom 1.8288 m (6.000 ft)
berid or menzil بريد or منزل range 600 ayak 227 m (745 ft)
eski mil nautical mile 5,000 ayak 1,894.35 m (1.02287 nmi)
fersah فرسخ league 3 eski mil 5,685 m (3.532 mi)
merhale مرحلة stage, phase 200 berid 45.48 km (28.26 mi)

Area

Local name In English In modern units
eski dönüm اسكی دونوم old dunam 919 m2 (9,890 sq ft)
büyük dönüm بیوك دونوم big dunam 2,720 m2 (29,300 sq ft)

Volume

Local name In English Equivalence In modern units
şinik peck 9.25 L (2.44 US gal)
kile (İstanbul) كيله‎ bushel 4 şinik 37 L (9.8 US gal)

Weight

Local name In English Equivalence In modern units
kırat قيراط carat 0.2004 g (1.002 carats)[3]
dirhem درهم (Turkish) dram 16 kırat 3.207 g (0.1131 oz)
okka اوقه oka 400 dirhem 1.282 kg (2.83 lb)
miskal مثقال 1.5 dirhem 4.25 g (0.150 oz)
batman بطمان 6 okka 7.697 kg (16.97 lb)
kantar قنطار weighbridge 56.449 kg (124.45 lb)
çeki چكی 4 kantar 225.789 kg (497.78 lb)

Volumetric flow

Local name In modern units
hilal هلال 0.6526 L/min [4]
çuvaldız 1.125 L/min
masura 4.5 L/min
kamış قامش 9 L/min
lüle لوله 36 L/min[5]

Time

The traditional calendar of the Ottoman Empire was, like in most Muslim countries, the Islamic calendar. Its era begins from the Hijra in 622 CE and each year is calculated using the 12 Arabian lunar months, approximately eleven days shorter than a Gregorian solar year. In 1839, however, a second calendar was put in use for official matters. The new calendar, which was called the Rumi also began by 622, but with an annual duration equal to a solar year after 1840. In modern Turkey, the Gregorian calendar was adopted as the legal calendar, beginning by the end of 1925. But the Islamic calendar is still used when discussing dates in an Islamic context.

See also

Reference and notes

  1. Türkiye’nin 75 yılı, Tempo yayınları, İstanbul, 1998, p. 53
  2. Fethi Yücel: Pratik Matematik,Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür yayınları, Ankara, 1963,p.15
  3. In this and following weight units, kg and g mean technically kg-weight or g-weight.
  4. "Facts On File History Database Center". www.fofweb.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  5. Zeus. "Nedir - Osmanlı Ölçüleri". toplumdusmani.net. Retrieved 22 January 2015.

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