North Macedonia

North Macedonia[lower-alpha 3] (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,[lower-alpha 4] is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in 1991 as one of the successor states of Yugoslavia. It is a landlocked country bordering Kosovo[lower-alpha 5] to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west.[7] It constitutes approximately the northern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia. Skopje, the capital and largest city, is home to a quarter of the country's 1.83 million people. The majority of the residents are ethnic Macedonians, a South Slavic people. Albanians form a significant minority at around 25%, followed by Turks, Romani, Serbs, Bosniaks, Aromanians and a few other minorities.

Republic of North Macedonia
Република Северна Македонија  (Macedonian)
Republika e Maqedonisë së Veriut  (Albanian)
Anthem: Денес над Македонија (Macedonian)
"Today over Macedonia"
Location of North Macedonia (green)

in Europe (dark grey)   [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Skopje
42°0′N 21°26′E
Official languages
  • Official regional languages
Ethnic groups
Religion
Demonym(s)
  • Macedonian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
 President
Stevo Pendarovski
Dimitar Kovačevski
Talat Xhaferi
LegislatureAssembly
Establishment history
2 August 1944
8 September 1991
Area
 Total
25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi) (145th)
 Water (%)
1.9
Population
 2021 census
1,836,713[2]
 Density
80.1/km2 (207.5/sq mi) (122nd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
 Total
$33.822 billion[4]
 Per capita
$16,253[4]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
 Total
$12.383 billion[4]
 Per capita
$6,143[4]
Gini (2019) 30.7[5]
medium
HDI (2021) 0.770[6]
high · 78th
CurrencyNorth Macedonian denar (MKD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+389
ISO 3166 codeMK
Internet TLD

The region's history begins with the kingdom of Paeonia, a mixed Thraco-Illyrian polity.[8] In the late sixth century BC, the area was subjugated by the Persian Achaemenid Empire, then incorporated into the Kingdom of Macedonia in the fourth century BC. The Roman Empire conquered the region in the second century BC and made it part of the larger province of Macedonia. The area remained part of the Byzantine Empire, but was often raided and settled by Slavic tribes beginning in the sixth century of the Christian era. Following centuries of contention between the Bulgarian, Byzantine, and Serbian Empires, it was part of the Ottoman Empire from the mid-14th until the early 20th century, when, following the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, the modern territory of North Macedonia came under Serbian rule.

During the First World War, the territory was ruled by Bulgaria, but after the end of the war it returned to Serbian rule as part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During the Second World War, it was again ruled by Bulgaria; and in 1945 it was established as a constituent state of communist Yugoslavia, which it remained until its peaceful secession in 1991. The country became a member of the United Nations in April 1993, but as a result of a dispute with Greece over the name "Macedonia", it was admitted under the provisional description "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"[lower-alpha 6] (abbreviated as "FYR Macedonia" or "FYROM"). In June 2018, Macedonia and Greece resolved the dispute with an agreement that the country should rename itself "Republic of North Macedonia". This renaming came into effect in February 2019.

A unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, North Macedonia is a member of the UN, NATO, the Council of Europe, the World Bank, OSCE, CEFTA, BSEC and the WTO. Since 2005, it has also been a candidate for joining the European Union. North Macedonia is an upper-middle-income country according to the World Bank's definitions[11] and has undergone considerable economic reform since its independence in developing an open economy. It is a developing country, ranked 82nd on the Human Development Index; and provides social security, a universal health care system, and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.


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