Niger

Niger or the Niger[13][14] (/nˈʒɛər/ or /ˈnər/;[15][16] French: [niʒɛʁ]), officially the Republic of the Niger[13][14] (French: République du Niger), is a landlocked country in West Africa. It is a unitary state bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin and Burkina Faso to the southwest, Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest. It covers a land area of almost 1,270,000 km2 (490,000 sq mi), making it the second-largest landlocked country in West Africa, after Chad. Over 80% of its land area lies in the Sahara. Its predominantly Muslim population of about 25 million[17][18] live mostly in clusters in the further south and west of the country. The capital Niamey is located in Niger's southwest corner.

Republic of the Niger
République du Niger  (French)
Motto: 
  • "Fraternité, Travail, Progrès" (French)
  • "Fraternity, Work, Progress"
Anthem: La Nigérienne
(English: "The Song of Niger")
Location of Niger (dark green)
Capital
and largest city
Niamey
13°32′N 2°05′E
Official languages
National languages[1]
Ethnic groups
(2021)[2]
Religion
(2012)[3]
Demonym(s)Nigerien[4]
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
 President
Mohamed Bazoum
Ouhoumoudou Mahamadou
Seyni Oumarou
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence 
from France
 Republic proclaimed
18 December 1958
 Declared
3 August 1960
Area
 Total
1,267,000 km2 (489,000 sq mi) (21st)
 Water (%)
0.02
Population
 2022 estimate
24,484,587[5] (56th)
 Density
12.1/km2 (31.3/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
 Total
$23.475 billion[6] (140th)
 Per capita
$1,213[7] (183rd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
 Total
$9.869 billion[8] (136th)
 Per capita
$510[9] (179th)
Gini (2014) 34.0[10]
medium · 70th
HDI (2021) 0.400[11]
low · 189th
CurrencyWest African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zoneUTC+1 (WAT)
Driving sideright[12]
Calling code+227
ISO 3166 codeNE
Internet TLD.ne

It is listed in the least developed countries group. Some non-desert portions of the country underwent periodic drought and desertification. The economy is concentrated around subsistence agriculture, with some export agriculture in the more fertile south, and export of raw materials, including uranium ore. It faces challenges to development due to its landlocked position, desert terrain, higher fertility rates without birth control and resulting overpopulation.[19]

The society reflects a diversity drawn from the independent histories of some ethnic groups and regions and their period living in a single state. Historically, Niger has been on the fringes of some states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived under 5 constitutions and 3 periods of military rule. After the military coup in 2010, Niger became a democratic, multi-party state. A majority of the population lives in rural areas.


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