# Newton's laws of motion

**Newton's laws of motion** are three basic laws of classical mechanics that describe the relationship between the motion of an object and the forces acting on it. These laws can be paraphrased as follows:

- A body remains at rest, or in motion at a constant speed in a straight line, unless acted upon by a force.
- When a body is acted upon by a force, the time rate of change of its momentum equals the force.
- If two bodies exert forces on each other, these forces have the same magnitude but opposite directions.[2]

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The three laws of motion were first stated by Isaac Newton in his *Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica* (*Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy*), originally published in 1687.[3] Newton used them to investigate and explain the motion of many physical objects and systems, which laid the foundation for classical mechanics. In the time since Newton, the conceptual content of classical physics has been reformulated in alternative ways, involving different mathematical approaches that have yielded insights which were obscured in the original, Newtonian formulation. Limitations to Newton's laws have also been discovered; new theories are necessary when objects move at very high speeds (special relativity), are very massive (general relativity), or are very small (quantum mechanics).