Newfoundland (/( ) /, locally //; French: Terre-Neuve, Canadian French: [taɛ̯ʁ.nœːv]; Miꞌkmaq: Ktaqmkuk) is a large island off the east coast of the North American mainland and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
|Area||108,860 km2 (42,030 sq mi)|
|Area rank||4th largest in Canada|
16th largest worldwide
|Coastline||9,656 km (6000 mi)|
|Highest elevation||814 m (2671 ft)|
|Highest point||The Cabox|
|Province||Newfoundland and Labrador|
|Largest settlement||St. John's (pop. 200,600)|
|Pop. density||4.39/km2 (11.37/sq mi)|
|Ethnic groups||English, Irish, Scottish, French, and Mi'kmaq|
|• Summer (DST)|
|Longest river: Exploits River|
(246 kilometres (153 mi))
With an area of 108,860 square kilometres (42,031 sq mi), Newfoundland is the world's 16th-largest island, Canada's fourth-largest island, and the largest Canadian island outside the North. The provincial capital, St. John's, is located on the southeastern coast of the island; Cape Spear, just south of the capital, is the easternmost point of North America, excluding Greenland. It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate, Fogo and Bell Island to be 'part of Newfoundland' (i.e., distinct from Labrador). By that classification, Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres (43,008 sq mi).
According to 2006 official Census Canada statistics, 57% of responding Newfoundland and Labradorians claim British or Irish ancestry, with 43.2% claiming at least one English parent, 21.5% at least one Irish parent, and 7% at least one parent of Scottish origin. Additionally 6.1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry. The island's total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105.