New South Wales

New South Wales (commonly abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian Capital Territory and Jervis Bay Territory are enclaves within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In December 2021, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million,[1] making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.3 million, live in the Greater Sydney area.[8]

New South Wales
The First State
The Premier State
Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites
(Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine)
Location of New South Wales in Australia
Coordinates: 32°S 147°E
Country Australia
Crown colony
as Colony of New South Wales
26 January 1788
Responsible government6 June 1856
Federation1 January 1901
Australia Act3 March 1986
Capital and largest citySydney
Administration128 local government areas
  TypeConstitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy
  BodyGovernment of New South Wales
  GovernorMargaret Beazley
  PremierDominic Perrottet (Liberal)
Legislature Parliament of New South Wales

Legislative Council (42 seats)

Legislative Assembly (93 seats)
Federal representationParliament of Australia
  Total809,952 km2 (312,724 sq mi)
  Land801,150 km2 (309,330 sq mi)
  Water8,802 km2 (3,398 sq mi)
Highest elevation2,228 m (7,310 ft)
 (December 2021)[1]
  Density10.0/km2 (26/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+10 (AEST)
UTC+9:30 (ACST)
(Broken Hill)
UTC+10:30 (ACDT)
(Broken Hill)
UTC+10:30 (LHST)
(Lord Howe Island)
UTC+11:00 (LHDT)
(Lord Howe Island)
Postal code
ISO 3166 codeAU-NSW
GSP year2019–20
GSP ($A million)$624,923[2] (1st)
GSP per capita$76,876 (4th)
HDI (2019)0.945[3]
very high · 3rd of 8
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
(Dacelo gigas)
FishBlue groper
(Achoerodus viridis)
(Telopea speciosissima)[4]
FossilMandageria fairfaxi
MineralBlack opal
ColourSky blue
(Pantone 291)[5]

The Colony of New South Wales was founded as a British penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825. The colony then also included the island territories of Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became the various states and territories of Australia. However, the Swan River Colony was never administered as part of New South Wales.

Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory.

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