Mongolia[lower-alpha 1] (/mɒŋˈɡliə/ (listen)) is a landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south. It covers an area of 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 square miles), with a population of just 3.3 million, making it the world's most sparsely populated sovereign nation. Mongolia is the world's largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea, and much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to roughly half of the country's population.

  • ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (Mongolian)
  • Монгол Улс (Mongolian)
Anthem: Монгол улсын төрийн дуулал
Mongol ulsyn töriin duulal
"National Anthem of Mongolia"
and largest city
Official languagesMongolian
Official scripts
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[3]
Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh
Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene
Gombojavyn Zandanshatar
LegislatureState Great Khural
209 BCE
29 December 1911
 Mongolian People's Republic established
26 November 1924
13 February 1992
1,564,116 km2 (603,909 sq mi) (18th)
 Water (%)
 2020 estimate
3,227,863[5] (134th)
2.07/km2 (5.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
$47 billion[6] (115th)
 Per capita
$14,270[6] (93rd)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
$13.7 billion[6] (133rd)
 Per capita
$4,151[6] (116th)
Gini (2018)32.7[7]
HDI (2019) 0.737[8]
high · 99th
CurrencyTögrög (MNT)
Time zoneUTC+7/+8[9]
Date (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+976
ISO 3166 codeMN
Internet, .мон
  1. ^ Also spelled "Ulan Bator".
  2. ^ "Mongolian" denotes nationality, which includes minorities such as Kazakhs or Tuvans, while "Mongol" indicates Mongol ethnicity.

The territory of modern-day Mongolia has been ruled by Mongolian nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the First Turkic Khaganate, and Khitan. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China and established the Yuan dynasty. At the peak of their power, the Mongols established peace-Pax Mongolica in the vast Eurasian region. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. Mongolia and China have always been at war since the beginning of the Asian state until now. The governors of the Mongolian provinces were divided into several parts due to conflicts among themselves in the 16th century. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism spread to Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century. Mongolia was never conquered by any country until the 17th century. In 18th century, the Dzungar Khanate of Mongolia was destroyed by the Qing dynasty of Manchus. By the early 20th century, almost one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990. This led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.

Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture remains integral. Buddhism is the majority religion, with the nonreligious being the second-largest group. Islam is the second-largest religion, concentrated among ethnic Kazakhs. Most citizens are ethnic Mongols, with roughly 5% of the population being Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities, who are especially concentrated in the west. Mongolia is a member of the United Nations, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, G77, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Non-Aligned Movement and a NATO global partner. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups.[4]

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