Luxembourg (/ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/ (listen) LUK-səm-burg;[9] Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuəɕ] (listen); French: Luxembourg; German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg,[lower-alpha 3] is a small landlocked country in Western Europe. It borders Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital and most populous city, Luxembourg,[10] is one of the four institutional seats of the European Union (together with Brussels, Frankfurt, and Strasbourg) and the seat of several EU institutions, notably the Court of Justice of the European Union, the highest judicial authority.[11][12] Luxembourg's culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its French and German neighbors; while Luxembourgish is legally the only national language of the Luxembourgish people,[13] French and German are also used in administrative and judicial matters and all three are considered administrative languages of the country.[13]

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  • Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourgish)
  • Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (French)
  • Großherzogtum Luxemburg (German)
"Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn" (Luxembourgish)
"Nous voulons rester ce que nous sommes" (French)
"Wir wollen bleiben, was wir sind" (German)
"We want to remain what we are"
Anthem: "Ons Heemecht"
("Our Homeland")
Location of Luxembourg (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark gray)
 in the European Union (green)

and largest city
49°48′52″N 06°07′54″E
Official languages
National languages: Luxembourgish

Administrative languages:

Nationality (2017)
  • 23.4% No religion
  • 3.2% Other
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Xavier Bettel
LegislatureChamber of Deputies
 from the French Empire and elevation to Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
15 March 1815
 Independence in personal Union with the Netherlands (Treaty of London)
19 April 1839
 Reaffirmation of Independence Treaty of London
11 May 1867
23 November 1890
 Occupation during World War I by the German Empire
1 August 1914
 Liberation from the Greater German Reich
1944 / 1945
 Admitted to the United Nations
24 October 1945
1 January 1958
2,586.4 km2 (998.6 sq mi) (168th)
 Water (%)
0.23 (2015)[3]
 January 2022 estimate
645,397[4] (168th)
 2022 census
645,397 [5]
242/km2 (626.8/sq mi) (58th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
$90.532 billion[6] (98th)
 Per capita
$140,694[6] (1st)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
$86.898 billion[6] (71st)
 Per capita
$135,046[6] (3rd)
Gini (2019) 32.3[7]
HDI (2021) 0.930[8]
very high · 17th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
Note: Although Luxembourg is located in Western European Time/UTC (Z) zone, since 1 June 1904, LMT (UTC+0:24:36) was abandoned and Central European Time/UTC+1 was adopted as standard time, with a +0:35:24 offset (+1:35:24 during DST) from Luxembourg City's LMT.
Driving sideright
Calling code+352
ISO 3166 codeLU
Internet TLD.lub
  1. Not the same as the Het Wilhelmus of the Netherlands.
  2. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.
  3. ^ "Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
Interactive map showing the border of Luxembourg

With an area of 2,586 square kilometers (998 sq mi), Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe,[14] and the smallest not considered a microstate. In 2022, it had a population of 645,397, which makes it one of the least-populated countries in Europe,[15] albeit with the highest population growth rate;[16] foreigners account for nearly half the population.[17] Luxembourg is a representative democracy headed by a constitutional monarch, Grand Duke Henri, making it the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy.

Luxembourg is a developed country with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. The city of Luxembourg was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of its vast fortifications and historic quarters.[18]

Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union,[19] OECD, the United Nations, NATO, and the Benelux.[20][21] It served on the United Nations Security Council for the first time in 2013 and 2014.[22] As of 2022, Luxembourg citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 189 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport fourth in the world, tied with Finland and Italy.[23]

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