Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lithuanian SSR; Lithuanian: Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika; Russian: Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика, romanized: Litovskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Lithuania or Lithuania, was one of the constituent republics of the USSR between 1940–1941 and 1944–1990. After 1946, its territory and borders mirrored those of today's Republic of Lithuania, with the exception of minor adjustments of the border with Belarus.[1]

Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika (Lithuanian)
Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика (Russian)
State emblem
Motto: Visų šalių proletarai, vienykitės! (Lithuanian)
"Workers of the world, unite!"
Tautiška giesmė
(1944–1950, 1988–1990/1991)

Anthem of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Location of Lithuania (red) within the Soviet Union
StatusUnrecognized Soviet Socialist Republic
(1940–1941, 1944–1990/1991)
De facto sovereign entity (1990–1991)
Common languagesLithuanian, Russian
GovernmentStalinist one-party totalitarian dictatorship (1940–1953)
Unitary Marxist-Leninist one-party Soviet-style socialist republic (1953–1989)
Unitary parliamentary republic (1989–1991)
First Secretary 
Antanas Sniečkus
Petras Griškevičius
Ringaudas Songaila
Algirdas Brazauskas
Chairman of the Supreme Council 
Vytautas Landsbergis
LegislatureSupreme Soviet
Historical eraWorld War II · Cold War
16 June 1940
 SSR established
21 July 1940
 Illegally annexed by USSR, Lithuania continued de jure
3 August 1940
June 1941
 Soviet re-occupation
SSR re-established
September–November 1944
 Sovereignty declared
18 May 1989
11 March 1990
 Independence recognized by the State Council of the Soviet Union
6 September 1991
198965,200 km2 (25,200 sq mi)
CurrencySoviet rouble (Rbl) (SUR)
Calling code7 012
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Today part ofLithuania

During World War II, the previously independent Republic of Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet army on 16 June 1940, in conformity with the terms of the 23 August 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, and established as a puppet state on 21 July.[2] Between 1941 and 1944, the German invasion of the Soviet Union caused its de facto dissolution. However, with the retreat of the Germans in 1944–1945, Soviet hegemony was re-established and continued for forty-five years. As a result, many western countries continued to recognize Lithuania as an independent, sovereign de jure state subject to international law, represented by the legations appointed by the pre-1940 Baltic states, which functioned in various places through the Lithuanian Diplomatic Service.

On 18 May 1989, the Lithuanian SSR declared itself to be a sovereign state, though still part of the USSR. On 11 March 1990, the Republic of Lithuania was re-established as an independent state, the first Soviet Republic to leave Moscow and leading other states to do so. Considered illegal by the Soviet authorities, the country was recognized by western powers immediately prior to the breakup of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union itself recognized Lithuanian independence on 6 September 1991.

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