List of current heads of state and government
This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government. In some cases, mainly in presidential systems, there is only one leader being both head of state and head of government. In other cases, mainly in semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of state and the head of government are different people. In semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and the head of state. In single-party systems, ruling party's leader (i.e. General Secretary) is usually the de facto top leader of the state, though sometimes this leader also holds the presidency or premiership.
The list includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads of state and government who will take office on an appointed date, as presidents-elect and prime ministers-designate, and those leading a government in exile if internationally recognised.