Kingdom of Bohemia

The Kingdom of Bohemia (Czech: České království),[lower-alpha 1] sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom,[9][10][lower-alpha 1] was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. It was an Imperial State in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Bohemian king was a prince-elector of the empire. The kings of Bohemia, besides the region of Bohemia proper itself, also ruled other lands belonging to the Bohemian Crown, which at various times included Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia, and parts of Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bavaria.

Kingdom of Bohemia
  • České království (Czech)
  • Königreich Böhmen (German)
  • Regnum Bohemiae (Latin)
Anthem: officially none, de facto Hospodine, pomiluj ny, Svatováclavský chorál
Medieval, royal shield of the King of Bohemia as imperial Elector and Arch-Cupbearer:[3][4]
The Kingdom of Bohemia (dark red) with other Bohemian Crown lands (light red) within the Holy Roman Empire (1618)
The Kingdom of Bohemia (red) within Austria-Hungary (1914)
Common languagesCzech, Latin, German
GovernmentFeudal monarchy
Absolute monarchy
Parliamentary monarchy
Ottokar I (first)
Charles III (last)
 Kingdom established
 Hereditary royal title confirmed
26 September 1212
 Inauguration of the Luxembourg dynasty
7 April 1348
 Became main part of Bohemian Crown lands
5 April 1355
25 December 1356
16 December 1526
 Dissolution of Austria-Hungary
31 October 1918
 Around 1400[6][7]
Approximately 2 million
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Duchy of Bohemia
Duchy of Wrocław
Duchy of Jawor
Duchy of Brzeg
Czechoslovak Republic
Today part ofCzech Republic

The kingdom was established by the Přemyslid dynasty in the 12th century from the Duchy of Bohemia, later ruled by the House of Luxembourg, the Jagiellonian dynasty, and from 1526 the House of Habsburg and its successor, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Numerous kings of Bohemia were also elected Holy Roman Emperors, and the capital, Prague, was the imperial seat in the late 14th century, and again at the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th centuries.

After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the territory became part of the Habsburg Austrian Empire, and subsequently the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867. Bohemia retained its name and formal status as a separate Kingdom of Bohemia until 1918, known as a crown land within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and its capital Prague was one of the empire's leading cities. The Czech language (called the Bohemian language in English usage until the 19th century)[11] was the main language of the Diet and the nobility until 1627 (after the Bohemian Revolt was suppressed). German was then formally made equal with Czech and eventually prevailed as the language of the Diet until the Czech National Revival in the 19th century. German was also widely used as the language of administration in many towns after the Germans immigrated and populated some areas of the country in the 13th century. The royal court used the Czech, Latin, and German languages, depending on the ruler and period.

Following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I, both the Kingdom and Empire were dissolved. Bohemia became the core part of the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic.

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