Kenya

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern Africa. At 580,367 square kilometres (224,081 sq mi), Kenya is the world's 48th largest country by area. With a population of more than 47.6 million in the 2019 census,[12] Kenya is the 29th most populous country in the world.[6] Kenya's capital and largest city is Nairobi, while its oldest, currently second largest city, and first capital is the coastal city of Mombasa. Kisumu City is the third-largest city and also an inland port on Lake Victoria. Other important urban centres include Nakuru and Eldoret. As of 2020, Kenya is the third-largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa after Nigeria and South Africa.[13] Kenya is bordered by South Sudan to the northwest, Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east, Uganda to the west, Tanzania to the south, and the Indian Ocean to the southeast. Its geography, climate and population vary widely, ranging from cold snow-capped mountaintops (Batian, Nelion and Point Lenana on Mount Kenya) with vast surrounding forests, wildlife and fertile agricultural regions to temperate climates in western and rift valley counties and dry less fertile arid and semi-arid areas and absolute deserts (Chalbi Desert and Nyiri Desert).

Republic of Kenya
Jamhuri ya Kenya  (Swahili)
Motto: "Harambee"
(English: "Let us all pull together")
Anthem: "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"
(English: "O God of all creation")
Capital
and largest city
Nairobi
1°16′S 36°48′E
Official languages
National languageSwahili[1]
Ethnic groups
(2019[2])
Religion
(2019[2])
Demonym(s)Kenyan
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
 President
Uhuru Kenyatta
William Ruto
Kenneth Lusaka
Justin Muturi
Martha Koome
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembly
Independence 
 Dominion
12 December 1963
 Republic
12 December 1964
Area
 Total
580,367 km2 (224,081 sq mi)[3][4] (48th)
 Water (%)
2.3
Population
 2021 estimate
54,985,698[5] (29th)
 2019 census
47,564,296[6]
 Density
78/km2 (202.0/sq mi) (124th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$333.268 billion[7]
 Per capita
$6,061 [8]
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$123.827 billion[8]
 Per capita
$2,252[8]
Gini (2015) 40.8[9]
medium
HDI (2019) 0.601[10]
medium · 143rd
CurrencyKenyan shilling (KES)
Time zoneUTC+3 (East Africa Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yy (AD)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+254
ISO 3166 codeKE
Internet TLD.ke
According to the CIA, estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of mortality because of AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex, than would otherwise be expected.[11]

Kenya's earliest inhabitants were hunter-gatherers, like the present-day Hadza people.[14][15] According to archaeological dating of associated artifacts and skeletal material, Cushitic speakers first settled in Kenya's lowlands between 3,200 and 1,300 BC, a phase known as the Lowland Savanna Pastoral Neolithic. Nilotic-speaking pastoralists (ancestral to Kenya's Nilotic speakers) began migrating from present-day South Sudan into Kenya around 500 BC.[16] Bantu people settled at the coast and the interior between 250 BC and 500 AD.[17] European contact began in 1500 AD with the Portuguese Empire, and effective colonisation of Kenya began in the 19th century during the European exploration of the interior. Modern-day Kenya emerged from a protectorate established by the British Empire in 1895 and the subsequent Kenya Colony, which began in 1920. Numerous disputes between the UK and the colony led to the Mau Mau revolution, which began in 1952, and the declaration of independence in 1963. After independence, Kenya remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The current constitution was adopted in 2010 and replaced the 1963 independence constitution.

Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic, in which elected officials represent the people and the president is the head of state and government.[18] Kenya is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, COMESA, International Criminal Court, as well as other international organisations. With a GNI of 1,840,[19] Kenya is a lower-middle-income economy. Kenya's economy is the largest in eastern and central Africa,[20][21] with Nairobi serving as a major regional commercial hub.[21] Agriculture is the largest sector: tea and coffee are traditional cash crops, while fresh flowers are a fast-growing export. The service industry is also a major economic driver, particularly tourism. Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, though some international trade organisations categorise it as part of the Greater Horn of Africa.[22] Africa is Kenya's largest export market, followed by the European Union.[23]


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