Kazakhstan,[8][lower-alpha 4] officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,[lower-alpha 5] is a transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.[lower-alpha 6] It borders Russia to the north and west, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan to the southeast, Uzbekistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Its capital is Nur-Sultan, formerly known as Astana until 2019. Almaty, Kazakhstan's largest city, was the country's capital until 1997. Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country, the world's largest Muslim-majority country by land area (and the northernmost), and the ninth-largest country in the world overall. It has a population of 19 million people, and one of the lowest population densities in the world, at fewer than 6 people per square kilometre (15 people per square mile).

Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Қазақстан Республикасы (Kazakh)
    Qazaqstan Respublikasy
  • Республика Казахстан (Russian)
    Respublika Kazakhstan
Менің Қазақстаным (Kazakh)
Menıñ Qazaqstanym
"My Kazakhstan"
51°10′N 71°26′E
Largest cityAlmaty
43°16′39″N 76°53′45″E
Official languagesKazakh
Russian[lower-alpha 1]
Spoken languagesKazakhRussianUzbekUyghurTurkmenUkrainianAzerbaijaniTatar and Others
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Kazakhstani[lower-alpha 2]
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential republic
Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
Alihan Smaiylov
13 December 1917
26 August 1920
19 June 1925
5 December 1936
 Declaration of Sovereignty
25 October 1990
 Reconstituted as the Republic of Kazakhstan
10 December 1991
 Independence from USSR
16 December 1991
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
30 August 1995
2,724,900 km2 (1,052,100 sq mi) (9th)
 Water (%)
 2022 estimate
19,122,423[2] (64th)
7/km2 (18.1/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
$569.813 billion[5] (41st)
 Per capita
$30,178[5] (53rd)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
$179.332 billion[5] (55th)
 Per capita
$9,686[5] (69th)
Gini (2017) 27.5[6]
HDI (2019) 0.825[7]
very high · 51st
CurrencyTenge (₸) (KZT)
Time zoneUTC+5 / +6 (West / East)
Date formatyyyy.dd.mm[lower-alpha 3]
Driving sideright
Calling code+7-6xx, +7-7xx
ISO 3166 codeKZ
Internet TLD

The country dominates Central Asia economically and politically, generating 60 percent of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil and gas industry; it also has vast mineral resources.[11] Officially, it is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage.[12] Kazakhstan is a member state of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization of Turkic States, and the International Organization of Turkic Culture.

The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by nomadic groups and empires. In antiquity, the ancient Iranian nomadic Scythians inhabited the land, and the Achaemenid Persian Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads, who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as the First Turkic Khaganate and the Second Turkic Khaganate, have inhabited the country from as early as the 6th century. In the 13th century, the territory was subjugated by the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. In the 15th century, the Kazakh Khanate conquered much land that would later form the territory of modern Kazakhstan.

By the 16th century, the Kazakhs emerged as a distinct Turkic group, divided into three jüz. They raided the territory of Russia throughout the 18th century, causing the Russians to advance into the Kazakh Steppe; by the mid-19th century, the Russians nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire and liberated all of the slaves that the Kazakhs had captured in 1859.[13] Following the 1917 Russian Revolution and subsequent outbreak of the Russian Civil War, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganized several times. In 1936, it was established as the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union from 1988 to 1991. Human rights organizations have described the Kazakh government as authoritarian, and regularly describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor.

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