July Monarchy

The July Monarchy (French: Monarchie de Juillet, officially the Kingdom of France (French: Royaume de France), was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting on 26 July 1830, with the July Revolution of 1830, and ending 23 February 1848, with the Revolution of 1848. It marks the end of the Bourbon Restoration (1814–1830). It began with the overthrow of the conservative government of Charles X, the last king of the House of Bourbon.

Kingdom of France[lower-alpha 1]
Royaume de France
1830–1848
Anthem: La Parisienne
"The Parisian"
The Kingdom of France between 1830 and 1848
CapitalParis
Common languagesFrench
Religion
Roman Catholicism
Calvinism
Lutheranism
Judaism
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
King 
 1830–1848
Louis Philippe I
Prime Minister 
 1830
Jacques Laffitte (first)
 1848
François Guizot (last)
LegislatureParliament
Chamber of Peers
Chamber of Deputies
History 
26 July 1830
7 August 1830
23 February 1848
CurrencyFrench franc
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of France
French Second Republic
Today part ofFrance
Algeria

Louis Philippe, a member of the more liberal Orléans branch of the House of Bourbon, proclaimed himself as Roi des Français ("King of the French") rather than "King of France", emphasizing the popular origins of his reign. The king promised to follow the juste milieu, or the middle-of-the-road, avoiding the extremes of both the conservative supporters of Charles X and radicals on the left.

The July Monarchy was dominated by wealthy bourgeoisie and numerous former Napoleonic officials. It followed conservative policies, especially under the influence (1840–48) of François Guizot. The king promoted friendship with the United Kingdom and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the French conquest of Algeria. By 1848, a year in which many European states had a revolution, the king's popularity had collapsed, and he was overthrown.


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