Guyana (/ɡˈɑːnə/ (listen) or /ɡˈænə/ (listen)),[7][8] officially the Cooperative Republic of Guyana,[9] is a country on the northern mainland of South America. Guyana is an indigenous word which means "Land of Many Waters". The capital city is Georgetown. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Venezuela to the west, and Suriname to the east. With 215,000 km2 (83,000 sq mi), Guyana is the third-smallest sovereign state by area in mainland South America after Uruguay and Suriname, and is the second-least populous sovereign state in South America after Suriname; it is also one of the least densely populated countries on Earth. It has a wide variety of natural habitats and very high biodiversity.

Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Motto: "One People, One Nation, One Destiny"
Anthem: "Dear Land of Guyana, of Rivers and Plains"
Location of Guyana (green)

in South America (grey)

and largest city
6°48′21″N 58°9′3″W
Official languagesEnglish
Recognised regional languages
Vernacular languageGuyanese Creole
Other languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary assembly-independent republic[2]
Irfaan Ali
Mark Phillips
Bharrat Jagdeo
Manzoor Nadir
Roxane George-Wiltshire (acting)
LegislatureNational Assembly
26 May 1966
23 February 1970
 Joined CARICOM at the Treaty of Chaguaramas
1 August 1973
6 October 1980
214,970 km2 (83,000 sq mi) (83rd)
 Water (%)
 2022 estimate
789,683[3] (166th)
3.502/km2 (9.1/sq mi) (232nd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
$30.287 billion[4] (142nd)
 Per capita
$38,258[4] (49th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
$13.543 billion[4] (142rd)
 Per capita
$17,108[4] (59th)
Gini (2007) 44.6[5]
HDI (2021) 0.714[6]
high · 108th
CurrencyGuyanese dollar (GYD)
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+592
ISO 3166 codeGY

The region known as "the Guianas" consists of the large shield landmass north of the Amazon River and east of the Orinoco River known as the "land of many waters". Nine indigenous tribes reside in Guyana: the Wai Wai, Macushi, Patamona, Lokono, Kalina, Wapishana, Pemon, Akawaio and Warao. Historically dominated by the Lokono and Kalina tribes, Guyana was colonised by the Dutch before coming under British control in the late 18th century. It was governed as British Guiana, with a mostly plantation-style economy until the 1950s. It gained independence in 1966, and officially became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. The legacy of British rule is reflected in the country's political administration and diverse population, which includes Indian, African, Indigenous, Chinese, Portuguese, other European, and various multiracial groups. In 2017, 41% of the population of Guyana lived below the poverty line.[10]

Guyana is the only South American nation in which English is the official language. However, the majority of the population speak Guyanese Creole, an English-based creole language, as a first language. Guyana is part of the Anglophone Caribbean. It is part of the mainland Caribbean region maintaining strong cultural, historical, and political ties with other Caribbean countries as well as serving as the headquarters for the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). In 2008, the country joined the Union of South American Nations as a founding member.

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