Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose is overall the most abundant monosaccharide, a subcategory of carbohydrates. Glucose is mainly made by plants and most algae during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make cellulose in cell walls, the most abundant carbohydrate in the world.
Haworth projection of α-d-glucopyranose
Fischer projection of d-glucose
|Preferred IUPAC name
PINs are not identified for natural products.
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||180.156 g/mol|
|Melting point||α-d-Glucose: 146 °C (295 °F; 419 K) β-d-Glucose: 150 °C (302 °F; 423 K)|
|909 g/L (25 °C (77 °F))|
Heat capacity (C)
Std enthalpy of
|2,805 kJ/mol (670 kcal/mol)|
|B05CX01 (WHO) V04CA02 (WHO), V06DC01 (WHO)|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Safety data sheet (SDS)||ICSC 08655|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
In energy metabolism, glucose is the most important source of energy in all organisms. Glucose for metabolism is stored as a polymer, in plants mainly as starch and amylopectin, and in animals as glycogen. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. The naturally occurring form of glucose is d-glucose, while its stereoisomer l-glucose is produced synthetically in comparatively small amounts and is less biologically active. Glucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group, and is therefore an aldohexose. The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) as well as ring (cyclic) form. Glucose is naturally occurring and is found in its free state in fruits and other parts of plants. In animals, glucose is released from the breakdown of glycogen in a process known as glycogenolysis.
Glucose, as intravenous sugar solution, is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is also on the list in combination with sodium chloride.
The name glucose is derived from Ancient Greek γλεῦκος (gleûkos, "wine, must"), from γλυκύς (glykýs, "sweet"). The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a sugar.