Free Democratic Party (Germany)

The Free Democratic Party (German: Freie Demokratische Partei; FDP, German pronunciation: [ɛfdeːˈpeː] (listen)) is a liberal[3][4] political party in Germany.

Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei
ChairmanChristian Lindner
General SecretaryBijan Djir-Sarai
Parliamentary leaderChristian Dürr
Founded12 December 1948; 73 years ago (1948-12-12)
Merger of
Reinhardtstraße 14
10117 Berlin
Youth wingYoung Liberals
Women's wingLiberal Women
FoundationFriedrich Naumann Foundation
Membership 73,000 (Sep. 2021 est.)[1]
Classical liberalism
Political positionCentre to centre-right
European affiliationAlliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
International affiliationLiberal International
European Parliament groupRenew Europe
Colours  Yellow   Pink   Cyan[2]
Cabinet of Germany
4 / 17
Seats in the Bundestag
92 / 736
2 / 69
State Parliaments
129 / 1,884
European Parliament
5 / 96

The FDP was founded in 1948 by members of former liberal political parties which existed in Germany before World War II, namely the German Democratic Party and the German People's Party. For most of the second half of the 20th century, the FDP held the balance of power in the Bundestag. It has been a junior coalition partner to both the CDU/CSU (1949–1956, 1961–1966, 1982–1998 and 2009–2013) and Social Democratic Party of Germany (1969–1982, 2021–). In the 2013 federal election, the FDP failed to win any directly elected seats in the Bundestag and came up short of the 5 percent threshold to qualify for list representation, being left without representation in the Bundestag for the first time in its history.[5] In the 2017 federal election, the FDP regained its representation in the Bundestag, receiving 10.6% of the vote. After the 2021 federal election the FDP became part of governing Scholz cabinet in coalition with the Social Democratic Party of Germany and The Greens.

Since the 1980s, the party has pushed economic liberalism and has aligned itself closely to the promotion of free markets and privatization, and is aligned to the centre[6][7] or centre-right[8] of the political spectrum. The FDP is a member of the Liberal International, the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and Renew Europe.

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