Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor

Francis II (German: Franz II.; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor (from 1792 to 1806) and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria, from 1804 to 1835. He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French. Soon after Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, Francis abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor. He was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. He also served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815.

Francis II / I
Portrait by Joseph Kreutzinger c. 1815
Holy Roman Emperor
King of the Romans
King in Germany
Reign5 July 1792 – 6 August 1806
Coronation14 July 1792, Frankfurt
PredecessorLeopold II
SuccessorNapoleon as Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine
Governors
(in Habsburg Netherlands)
Archduke/Emperor of Austria
Reign1 March 1792/11 August 1804 – 2 March 1835
PredecessorLeopold VII
SuccessorFerdinand I
ChancellorKlemens von Metternich
King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia
Reign1 March 1792 – 2 March 1835
Coronations
PredecessorLeopold II
SuccessorFerdinand V
King of Lombardy–Venetia
Reign9 June 1815 – 2 March 1835
SuccessorFerdinand I
Head of the Präsidialmacht Austria
In office20 June 1815 – 2 March 1835
SuccessorFerdinand I
Born(1768-02-12)12 February 1768
Florence, Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire
Died2 March 1835(1835-03-02) (aged 67)
Vienna, Austrian Empire
Burial
Spouses
    (m. 1788; died 1790)
      (m. 1790; died 1807)
        (m. 1808; died 1816)
          (m. 1816)
          Issue
          Detail
          Names
          Franz Josef Karl
          HouseHabsburg-Lorraine
          FatherLeopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
          MotherMaria Luisa of Spain
          ReligionRoman Catholicism
          Signature

          Francis II continued his leading role as an opponent of Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars, and suffered several more defeats after the Battle of Austerlitz. The marriage of his daughter Marie Louise of Austria to Napoleon on 10 March 1810 was arguably his severest personal defeat. After the abdication of Napoleon following the War of the Sixth Coalition, Austria participated as a leading member of the Holy Alliance at the Congress of Vienna, which was largely dominated by Francis' chancellor Klemens von Metternich culminating in a new European map and the restoration of most of Francis' ancient dominions. Due to the establishment of the Concert of Europe, which largely resisted popular nationalist and liberal tendencies, Francis was viewed as a reactionary later in his reign.

          Francis II's grandchildren included Napoleon II (Napoleon's only legitimate son), Franz Joseph I of Austria, Maximilian I of Mexico, Maria II of Portugal and Pedro II of Brazil.


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