Fāṭima bint Muḥammad (Arabic: فَاطِمَة ٱبْنَت مُحَمَّد, 605/15–632 CE), commonly known as Fāṭima al-Zahrāʾ (فَاطِمَة ٱلزَّهْرَاء), was the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his wife Khadija.[1] Fatima's husband was Ali, the fourth of the Rashidun Caliphs and the first Shia Imam. Fatima's sons were Hasan and Husayn, the second and third Shia Imams, respectively.[2][3]


فَاطِمَة ٱلزَّهْرَاء
Fatima's name in Islamic calligraphy
Born605 or 612/15 (disputed)
Resting placeMedina, Hejaz
List of titles
  • al-Zahra
    (lit.'the radiant')
  • al-Siddiqa
    (lit.'the righteous')
  • al-Muhadditha
    (lit.'the one spoken to by angels')
  • Umm Abiha
    (lit.'mother of her father')
  • Sayyidat Nisa al-Janna (lit.'mistress of the women of paradise')
  • Sayyidat Nisa al-Alamin (lit.'mistress of the women of the worlds')

Fatima has been compared to Mary, mother of Jesus, especially in Shia Islam.[4][5] Muhammad is said to have regarded her as the best of women[6][7] and the dearest person to him.[8][6] She is often viewed as an ultimate archetype for Muslim women and an example of compassion, generosity, and enduring suffering.[4] It is through Fatima that Muhammad's family line has survived to this date.[9][7] Her name and her epithets remain popular choices for Muslim girls.[10][11]

When Muhammad died in 632, Fatima and her husband Ali refused to acknowledge the authority of the first caliph, Abu Bakr. The couple and their supporters held that Ali was the rightful successor of Muhammad,[4] possibly referring to his announcement at the Ghadir Khumm.[12]

Controversy surrounds Fatima's death within six months of Muhammad's.[13] Sunni Islam holds that Fatima died from grief.[3] In Shia Islam, however, Fatima's (miscarriage and) death are said to have been the direct result of her injuries during a raid on her house to subdue Ali, ordered by Abu Bakr.[14] It is believed that Fatima's dying wish was that the caliph should not attend her funeral.[15][16] She was buried secretly at night and her exact burial place remains uncertain.[17][18]

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