Dunedin (/dʌˈndɪn/ (listen)[9] duh-NEE-din; Māori: Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand (after Christchurch), and the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland.[10] The city has a rich Scottish, Chinese[11] and Māori heritage.

Ōtepoti (Māori)
Clockwise from top: First Church of Otago; cityscape seen from Signal Hill lookout; Larnach Castle; Anglican Cathedral and Town Hall on The Octagon
Clockwise from top: First Church of Otago; cityscape seen from Signal Hill lookout; Larnach Castle; Anglican Cathedral and Town Hall on The Octagon
Flag of Dunedin
Coat of arms of Dunedin
Edinburgh of the South;[1]
Dunners (colloquial)[2]
Maiorum Institutis Utendo
(By following in the Steps of our Forefathers)[3]
Coordinates: 45°52′27″S 170°30′13″E
CountryNew Zealand
  • Strath Taieri
  • Waikouaiti Coast
  • Mosgiel-Taieri
  • West Harbour
  • Otago Peninsula
  • Saddle Hill
Settled by Māoric. 1300[4][5]
Settled by Europeans1848
Incorporated[6]1855; 168 years ago (1855)
Named forDùn ÈideannScottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh
NZ ParliamentDunedin
Te Tai Tonga (Māori)
  MayorJules Radich
  Deputy MayorSophie Barker
  Territorial authorityDunedin City Council
  Territorial3,314 km2 (1,280 sq mi)
255 km2 (98 sq mi)
 (June 2022)[8]
  Density39/km2 (100/sq mi)
  Urban density400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+12 (NZST)
  Summer (DST)UTC+13 (NZDT)
9010, 9011, 9012, 9013, 9014, 9016, 9018, 9022, 9023, 9024, 9035, 9076, 9077, 9081, 9082, 9092
Area code03
Local iwiNgāi Tahu

With an estimated population of 130,400 as of June 2022, Dunedin is both New Zealand's seventh-most populous metro and urban area.[8] For historic, cultural and geographic reasons the city has long been considered one of New Zealand's four main centres.[lower-alpha 1] The urban area of Dunedin lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour, and the harbour and hills around Dunedin are the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, and along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean.

Archaeological evidence points to lengthy occupation of the area by Māori prior to the arrival of Europeans. The province and region of Otago takes its name from the Ngāi Tahu village of Otakou at the mouth of the harbour,[19] which became a whaling station in the 1830s.

In 1848 a Scottish settlement was established by the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland and between 1855 and 1900 many thousands of Scots emigrated to the incorporated city. Dunedin's population and wealth boomed during the 1860s Central Otago Gold Rush, and for a brief period of time it became New Zealand's largest urban area. The city saw substantial migration from mainland China at the same time, predominately from Guangdong and Guangxi.[20] Dunedin is home to New Zealand’s oldest Chinese community.[11]

Today Dunedin has a diverse economy which includes manufacturing, publishing, arts, tourism and technology-based industries. The mainstay of the city's economy remains centered around tertiary education, with students from the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university, and the Otago Polytechnic, accounting for a large proportion of the population; 21.6 per cent of the city's population was aged between 15 and 24 at the 2006 census, compared to the New Zealand average of 14.2 per cent.[21] Dunedin is also noted for its vibrant music scene, as the 1980s birthplace of the Dunedin sound (which heavily influenced grunge, indie and modern alternative rock).[22] In 2014 the city was designated as a UNESCO City of Literature.[23]

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