Devanagari

Devanagari (/ˌdvəˈnɑːɡəri/ DAY-və-NAH-gə-ree; देवनागरी, IAST: Devanāgarī, Sanskrit pronunciation: [deːʋɐˈnaːɡɐriː]), also called Nagari (Sanskrit: नागरी, Nāgarī ?),[9] is a left-to-right abugida (a type of segmental writing system),[10] based on the ancient Brāhmī script,[1] used in the Indian subcontinent. It was developed in ancient India from the 1st to the 4th century CE[1] and was in regular use by the 7th century CE.[9][11] The Devanagari script, composed of 47 primary characters including 14 vowels and 33 consonants, is the fourth most widely adopted writing system in the world,[12] being used for over 120 languages.[13]

Devanagari
देवनागरी
Devanagari script (vowels top, consonants bottom) in Chandas font[better source needed]
Script type
Time period
Early form: 1st century CE[1] Modern form: 7th century CE to present[2][3]
Directionleft-to-right 
Region India 120+ languages use Devanagari script

 Fiji as script for Fiji Hindi
 South Africa as protected language (script)[4]

   Nepal
LanguagesApabhramsha, Awadhi, Bhili, Bhojpuri, Bodo, Braj, Chhattisgarhi, Dogri, Gujarati, Garhwali, Haryanvi, Hindi, Hindustani, Kashmiri, Konkani, Kumaoni, Magahi, Maithili, Marathi, Marwari, Mundari, Newari, Nepali, Pāḷi, Pahari, Prakrit, Rajasthani, Sadri, Sanskrit, Santali, Saraiki, Sherpa, Sindhi, Surjapuri, and many more.
Related scripts
Parent systems
Sister systems
Nandinagari
Kaithi
Gujarati
Moḍī
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Deva (315), Devanagari (Nagari)
Unicode
Unicode alias
Devanagari
U+0900–U+097F Devanagari,
U+A8E0–U+A8FF Devanagari Extended,
U+1CD0–U+1CFF Vedic Extensions
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is debated.
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and  , see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The orthography of this script reflects the pronunciation of the language.[13] Unlike the Latin alphabet, the script has no concept of letter case.[14] It is written from left to right, has a strong preference for symmetrical rounded shapes within squared outlines, and is recognisable by a horizontal line, known as a shirorekhā, that runs along the top of full letters.[10] In a cursory look, the Devanagari script appears different from other Indic scripts such as Bengali-Assamese, or Gurmukhi, but a closer examination reveals they are very similar except for angles and structural emphasis.[10]

Among the languages using it – as either their only script or one of their scripts – are Marathi, Pāḷi, Sanskrit (the ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters),[15] Hindi,[16] Boro, Nepali, Sherpa, Prakrit, Apabhramsha, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Braj Bhasha,[17] Chhattisgarhi, Haryanvi, Magahi, Nagpuri, Rajasthani, Bhili, Dogri, Kashmiri, Konkani, Sindhi, Nepal Bhasa, Mundari, and Santali.[13] The Devanagari script is closely related to the Nandinagari script commonly found in numerous ancient manuscripts of South India,[18][19] and it is distantly related to a number of southeast Asian scripts.[13]


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