Danube

The Danube (/ˈdæn.jb/ DAN-yoob; known by various names in other languages) is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. Its longest headstream Breg rises in Furtwangen im Schwarzwald, while the river carries its name from its source confluence in Donaueschingen onwards.

Danube
The Danube in Budapest
Course of the Danube, marked in red
Native name
Location
Countries
Cities
Physical characteristics
SourceBreg
  locationFurtwangen im Schwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  coordinates48°05′44″N 08°09′18″E
  elevation1,078 m (3,537 ft)
2nd sourceBrigach
  locationSt. Georgen im Schwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  coordinates48°06′24″N 08°16′51″E
  elevation940 m (3,080 ft)
Source confluence 
  locationDonaueschingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  coordinates47°57′03″N 08°31′13″E
MouthDanube Delta
  location
Romania
  coordinates
45°13′3″N 29°45′41″E
Length2,850 km (1,770 mi)[1]
Basin size801,463 km2 (309,447 sq mi)
Discharge 
  locationBefore the Danube Delta
  average(Period: 1931–2010) 6,510 m3/s (230,000 cu ft/s)[2]

(Period: 1970–2015) 6,546 m3/s (231,200 cu ft/s)[3]

(Period: 1840–2006) 6,471 m3/s (228,500 cu ft/s)[4]
  minimum1,790 m3/s (63,000 cu ft/s)[2]
  maximum15,900 m3/s (560,000 cu ft/s)[2]
Discharge 
  locationPassau, Bavaria, Germany
30 km (19 mi) before town
  average580 m3/s (20,000 cu ft/s)
Discharge 
  locationVienna, Austria
  average1,900 m3/s (67,000 cu ft/s)
Discharge 
  locationBudapest, Hungary
  average2,350 m3/s (83,000 cu ft/s)
Discharge 
  locationBelgrade, Serbia
  average5,600 m3/s (200,000 cu ft/s)

The Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire and today is the river running through the largest number of countries in the world (10; the Nile is second with 9). Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km (1,770 mi), passing through or bordering Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The largest cities on the river are Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade and Bratislava, all of which are the capitals of their respective countries. The Danube passes through four capital cities, more than any other river in the world.[5] Five more capital cities lie in the Danube's basin: Bucharest, Sofia, Zagreb, Ljubljana and Sarajevo. The fourth-largest city in its basin is Munich, the capital of Bavaria, standing on the Isar River.

The Danube river basin is home to fish species such as pike, zander, huchen, Wels catfish, burbot and tench. It is also home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass, mullet, and eel, inhabit the Danube Delta and the lower portion of the river.

Since ancient times, the Danube has been a traditional trade route in Europe. Today, 2,415 km (1,501 mi) of its total length are navigable. The Danube is linked to the North Sea via the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, connecting the Danube at Kelheim with the Main at Bamberg. The river is also an important source of hydropower and drinking water. Many European borders, especially in the Balkans, are also drawn by the Danube's stream.


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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Danube, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.