Cuba (/ˈkjuːbə/ (listen) KEW-bə, Spanish: [ˈkuβa] (listen)), officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: República de Cuba [reˈpuβlika ðe ˈkuβa] (listen)), is an island country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located where the northern Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Atlantic Ocean meet. Cuba is located east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the American state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic), and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The official area of the main island of Cuba is 109,884 km2 (42,426 sq mi) (without the territorial waters) but a total of 350,730 km² including the exclusive economic zone. The main island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 109,884 km2 (42,426 sq mi). Cuba is the second-most populous country in the Caribbean after Haiti, with over 11 million inhabitants.[13]

Republic of Cuba
República de Cuba (Spanish)
Motto: ¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!
("Homeland or Death, We Shall Overcome!")[1]
Anthem: La Bayamesa
("The Bayamo Song")[2]
Cuba shown in dark green.
and largest city
23°8′N 82°23′W
Official languagesSpanish
Other spoken languagesHaitian Creole
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic[5]
Miguel Díaz-Canel
Salvador Valdés Mesa
Manuel Marrero Cruz
Esteban Lazo Hernández
LegislatureNational Assembly of People's Power
from the United States and Spain
24 September 1810
10 October 1868
24 February 1895
 Recognized (Handed over to the United States from Spain)
10 December 1898
 Republic declared (Independence from United States)
20 May 1902
26 July 1953 – 1 January 1959
10 April 2019
109,884 km2 (42,426 sq mi) (104th)
 Water (%)
 2022 estimate
11,008,112[6] (84th)
 2021 census
11,113,215[7] (83rd)
101.8/km2 (263.7/sq mi) (80th)
GDP (PPP)2015 estimate
$254.865 billion[8]
 Per capita
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
$107.352 billion[10] (60th)
 Per capita
$9,478[10] (84th)
Gini (2000)38.0[11]
HDI (2021) 0.764[12]
high · 83rd
CurrencyCuban peso (CUP)
Time zoneUTC−5 (CST)
 Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+53
ISO 3166 codeCU

The territory that is now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonization in the 15th century.[14] From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain, and slavery was abolished in 1882, until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained independence in 1902. In 1940, Cuba implemented a new constitution, but mounting political unrest culminated in a coup in 1952 and the subsequent dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista,[15] which was later overthrown in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement during the Cuban Revolution, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro.[16][17][18] The country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.[19] Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba faced a severe economic downturn in the 1990s, known as the Special Period. In 2008, Fidel Castro resigned after 49 years of leadership of Cuba and was replaced by his brother Raúl Castro. Cuba is one of a few extant Marxist–Leninist socialist states, in which the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution.

Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America.[20] It is a multiethnic country whose people, culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the Taíno Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of enslaved Africans and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.

Cuba is a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States, ALBA, and the Organization of American States. It has currently one of the world's few planned economies, and its economy is dominated by the tourism industry and the exports of skilled labor, sugar, tobacco, and coffee. Cuba has historically—both before and during communist rule—performed better than other countries in the region on several socioeconomic indicators, such as literacy,[21][22] infant mortality and life expectancy.[23][24]

Cuba has a one-party authoritarian regime where political opposition is not permitted.[25][26][27] There are elections in Cuba, but they are not considered democratic.[28][29] Censorship of information (including limits to Internet access) is extensive,[30][31][32] and independent journalism is repressed in Cuba;[33] Reporters Without Borders has characterized Cuba as one of the worst countries in the world for press freedom.[34][35]

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