Croatian language

Croatian (/krˈʃən/ (listen); hrvatski [xř̩ʋaːtskiː]) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian pluricentric language[9][10][11][12][13] used by Croats,[14] principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is also one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a recognized minority language in Serbia and neighboring countries.

Croatian
hrvatski
Pronunciation[xř̩ʋaːtskiː]
Native toCroatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia (Vojvodina), Montenegro (Bay of Kotor), Romania (Caraș-Severin County)
EthnicityCroats
Native speakers
(5.6 million, including other dialects spoken by Croats cited 1991–2006)[1]
Latin (Gaj's alphabet)
Yugoslav Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Croatia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina (co-official)
 Serbia (in Vojvodina)
 Austria (in Burgenland)
 European Union
Recognised minority
language in
 Montenegro (co-official on municipal level)[4]
 Slovakia[5]
 Czech Republic[6]
 Hungary (in Baranya County)[7]
 Italy[8]
Regulated byInstitute of Croatian Language and Linguistics
Language codes
ISO 639-1hr
ISO 639-2hrv
ISO 639-3hrv
Glottologcroa1245
Linguaspherepart of 53-AAA-g
Traditional extent of Serbo-Croatian dialects in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Croatian is not endangered according to the classification system of the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin. In the mid-18th century, the first attempts to provide a Croatian literary standard began on the basis of the Neo-Shtokavian dialect that served as a supraregional lingua franca pushing back regional Chakavian, Kajkavian, and Shtokavian vernaculars.[15] The decisive role was played by Croatian Vukovians, who cemented the usage of Ijekavian Neo-Shtokavian as the literary standard in the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, in addition to designing a phonological orthography.[16] Croatian is written in Gaj's Latin alphabet.[17]

Besides the Shtokavian dialect, on which Standard Croatian is based, there are two other main dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia, Chakavian and Kajkavian. These dialects, and the four national standards, are usually subsumed under the term "Serbo-Croatian" in English, though this term is controversial for native speakers,[18] and paraphrases such as "Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian" are therefore sometimes used instead, especially in diplomatic circles.


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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Croatian language, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.